Weight Reduction in Automotive Design and Manufacture

NEW YORK, Dec. 3, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Weight Reduction in Automotive Design and Manufacture

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01458930/Weight-Reduction-in-Automotive-Design-and-Manufacture.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=NoCategory

Weight reduction is again a priority across the industry, as strict new regulations push for greater vehicle efficiency/CO2 reduction in the US and Europe. From the smallest fasteners to entire vehicle architectures, engineers are wringing excess weight out of new components and systems, while looking for new ways to lighten existing designs.

Although the motivations for and benefits of automotive weight reduction are plentiful, a number of barriers exist to the development of lighter, more streamlined and mass-efficient vehicles. This third edition report looks at policy initiatives, weight saving methods, competition between OEMs, barriers, drivers and government regulation. Fuel economy & CO2 emissions are detailed for the US, EU, Japan, South Korea & China. Vehicle safety & cost implications are also considered along with weight reduction by sector (body structure, chassis, powertrain and interior).

The report also includes a detailed section on materials technology and examines the use of advanced steel, aluminium, magnesium, titanium, carbon fibre, plastics, bio-materials and textiles. Recycling and joining technology are also considered.

Introduction

• The effect of policy initiatives• Weight saving methods • Competition between OEMs • Mass reduction and vehicle lifecycle CO2 emissions • Barriers to weight reduction DifferentiationSafety Process development Cost considerations

The drivers for lightweighting

• Government regulation

• Fuel economy and CO2 emissions

The European Union

The United States

Japan

China

Other countries

Testing regimes

• Vehicle safety

• Cost implications

• Consumer behaviour

Lightweighting as part of the solution

• Lifecycle analysis – the holistic approach

Historic perspective

Weight reduction by sector

• Body-in-white, closures and hang-ons

• Powertrain

• Chassis

• Interiors

Materials technology

• Developing material technology • Advanced steel developments Competition from other materials The Future Steel Vehicle Programme Steel forming technology

Aluminium

• Advanced aluminium alloys

• Aluminium and safety

• Growth opportunities for aluminium

Powertrain applications

Chassis applications

Body applications

Changing aluminium properties using carbon nanotubes

• Recycling

Magnesium

Price volatility Demand for magnesium Magnesium advantages Magnesium extractionAlloy and process development Magnesium sheet production and stamping Forging

Titanium

• Titanium engine applications

• Titanium chassis applications

Brake Systems

Exhaust Systems

Springs, bolts and fasteners

• Lowering the cost of titanium

Extraction

Fabrication

Composite and plastic materials

• Carbon fibre Strategic interest from OEMs Supply-side constraints• Carbon fibre cost reduction Process development • Thermocomposite materials Thermoset versus thermoplastic • Plastics• Sheet moulding compound (SMC) • Nano-scale materials • Honeycomb structuresProcess development

Hybrid materials technology

Bio-Materials

• Challenges in bio-material application • Bio-based materials • Current and future applications• Future application

Textiles

• Woven and knitted fabrics

Recycling

New ways of recycling

Joining technology

• Welding

Laser welding

Magnetic pulse welding

Plasma arc welding

Deformation resistance welding

Ultrasonic aluminium welding

Friction stir welding

Laser-Assisted Friction Stir Welding

• Adhesive bonding

Hybrid bonding

• Riveting

Self-piercing rivets

Figures

Figure 1: Potential further gains in vehicle efficiency

Figure 2: Segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2012 (Europe)

Figure 3: US light duty vehicle trends for weight, acceleration, fuel economy, and weight-adjusted fuel economy for model years 1975-2009 (US EPA, 2009 data)

Figure 4: Weight reduction in the current weight-based CO2 target system (left) and in a size based system (right)

Figure 5: Average CO2 emissions levels for new passenger cars in the EU

Figure 6: CO2 emissions for model year 2008 hybrids and their non-hybrid counterparts

Figure 7: The cost of fuel efficiency gains through weight reduction compared to other technologies

Figure 8: Fiat's C-Evo Platform

Figure 9: North American curb weight forecast

Figure 10: The use phase dominates lifecycle vehicle emissions

Figure 11: Analysing lifetime greenhouse gas effects

Figure 12: Relative CO2 reduction benefits vs. relative cost

Figure 13: Drivers and areas of focus for vehicle weight reduction

Figure 14: Global mandatory automobile efficiency and GHG standards

Figure 15: Methods for reducing CO2 output

Figure 16: Impact of vehicle weight on fuel consumption

Figure 17: CO2 (g/km) performance and standards in the EU new cars 1994 - 2011

Figure 18: The effect of alternative German proposals for CO2 reduction regulation for Europe

Figure 19: US targets for future GHG reductions (% reduction from 2005 levels)

Figure 20: Average fuel efficiency 2010 and 2015 targets for gasoline vehicles

Figure 21: Global passenger car and light vehicles emission legislation progress 2005 – 2025

Figure 22: Comparison of different test regimes for EU, US and Japan

Figure 23: Comparison of different fuel efficiency regulations and test regimes

Figure 24: US mass of passenger cars 1975 – 2010 with weight attributed to safety, emissions, comfort and convenience features

Figure 25: Relative crash safety of mass reduced SUV and car combinations

Figure 26: Weight and cost comparison for automotive components

Figure 27: Challenges with materials application

Figure 28: Changing cost implications in improving weight performance

Figure 29: Average profit per vehicle versus CO2 compliance costs

Figure 30: Average price of gasoline in the US 2002 to 2012

Figure 31: Average price of gasoline, diesel and natural gas in the US 2010 to 2012

Figure 32: US Regular Gasoline prices $/gallon, January 2011 to June 2013

Figure 33: Evolution of average Al content of passenger cars in Europe

Figure 34: Progress in weight reduction through materials technology

Figure 35: A schematic illustrating lifecycle considerations for CO2 equivalent

Figure 36: Materials production average greenhouse gas emissions

Figure 37: Demand shortfall of aluminium from end-of-life recycling

Figure 38: Lower fuel consumption outweighs additional CO2 burden from lightweight material manufacturing

Figure 39: Lifecycle system analysis schematic

Figure 40: CO2 equivalent output per kWh of electricity produced

Figure 41: Global automotive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors shipments

Figure 42: Mini segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2012 (Europe)

Figure 43: Lower mid segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2012 (Europe)

Figure 44: Upper mid segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2012 (Europe)

Figure 45: Luxury segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2012 (Europe)

Figure 46: Trends in aluminium use

Figure 47: The multi-material vehicle concept applied to the Audi A8 body-in-white

Figure 48: Aluminium potential and market penetration in Europe

Figure 49: Weight share of modules and their weight increase

Figure 50: Changes in steel usage in BIW application

Figure 51: Front bumper design for the new Fiat Panda delivers 0.88kg weight saving

Figure 52: BIW materials 2006 data and 2015 forecast

Figure 53: Front bumper design for the new Alpha Romeo Giulietta delivers 3.1kg weight saving

Figure 54: Aluminium/ magnesium lightweight design 6 cylinder engine

Figure 55: Engine weight and performance for aluminium and cast iron blocks

Figure 56: 1.0L Ecoboost cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold

Figure 57: A lightweight strut with a fibreglass wheel carrier

Figure 58: Aston Martin carbon fibre rear spoiler

Figure 59: Cost comparison of lightweight vehicle structures

Figure 60: Areas for chassis weight reduction

Figure 61: Mass reduction in seat design

Figure 62: Contribution to weight reduction

Figure 63: Laser sintered manifold

Figure 64: Implementation of advanced steel alloys over time for Ford models

Figure 65: Overall demand for auto steel and other metals and materials

Figure 66: Advanced high strength steel developments

Figure 67: BIW materials by tensile strength BMW 6 Series

Figure 68: Third generation advanced high strength steel development

Figure 69: Microstructure of TRIP steel

Figure 70: Use of boron steel in BMW's 6 Series BIW

Figure 71: Beyond third generation AHSS; NanoSteel alloys

Figure 72: P-group elements in the periodic table

Figure 73: Elongation versus alloy percent p-group elements conventional high strength steels

Figure 74: Elongation versus alloy percent p-group elements NanoSteel AHSS

Figure 75: Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of the Future Steel Vehicle (FSV) programme vehicles

Figure 76: Steel portfolio to technology portfolio flow diagram for the FSV programme

Figure 77: Aluminium content per vehicle

Figure 78: Primary aluminium production 2012

Figure 79: Global aluminium production including recycling 2012

Figure 80: US forecast market share of steel and aluminium

Figure 81: Al growth by segment for Europe and North America

Figure 82: Aluminium content by system/ component

Figure 83: Aluminium content in 2012

Figure 84: Aluminium and plastic componentry BMW 7 Series body structure

Figure 85: Aluminium content growth 2009 to 2012

Figure 86: Iso-strength curves for 6000 Series alloys

Figure 87: Composition of 7000 Series alloys

Figure 88: Aluminium front structure

Figure 89: Weight reduction studies

Figure 90: Federal Mogul's Advanced Estoval II piston

Figure 91: Aluminium steering knuckle

Figure 92: Magnesium content per vehicle

Figure 93: Specific strength versus specific stiffness for various materials

Figure 94: Magnesium demand breakdown

Figure 95: Magnesium pricing history

Figure 96: Global magnesium production 1998 and 2011 by region

Figure 97: Potential for weight saving replacing aluminium with magnesium in the powertrain

Figure 98: Typical magnesium die castings

Figure 99: Die cast three cylinder engine block in AM-SC1 alloy

Figure 100: Stamped magnesium tailgate

Figure 101: Thermally formed magnesium alloy sheet trunk lid inner

Figure 102: Potential magnesium applications

Figure 103: Potential magnesium extrusion use

Figure 104: Proportions of different materials – Audi R8

Figure 105: Application of titanium-Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) alloys for engine components

Figure 106: Connecting rod made of Ti-SB62 split using laser cracking

Figure 107: Turbocharger turbine wheel made from ?TiAl

Figure 108: Titanium MMC crankshaft using Ti-4A-4V+12% TiCl

Figure 109: Comparison between titanium and steel spring showing 50% weight saving

Figure 110: VW Golf 4-Motion titanium exhaust

Figure 111: Titanium use in the Bugatti Veyron

Figure 112: laser sintered titanium components

Figure 113: Price elasticity of demand for various engineering materials

Figure 114: CFRP cost structure according to SGL Group

Figure 115: Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) process chain

Figure 116: Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) process schematic

Figure 117: McLaren's MP4-12C featuring a carbon fibre monocoque safety cell

Figure 118: CFRP future development roadmap

Figure 119: Schematic of the Resin Spray Transfer process

Figure 120: Advanced engineering plastics use in the MX-0 design challenge vehicle

Figure 121: Density strength relationships for various engineering materials

Figure 122: Emerging automotive nanotechnology uses

Figure 123: Emerging applications for carbon nanotube based materials technology

Figure 124: Nanocomposite interior component

Figure 125: Over injection moulding of metal structures

Figure 126: A schematic illustrating a holistic interdisciplinary approach to multi-material design and manufacture

Figure 127: Optimal continuous fibre reinforcement design for thermoplastic component

Figure 128: Optimised component design achieved by intrinsic materials hybridisation

Figure 129: Hybrid materials process schematic

Figure 130: Wheat Straw/ Polypropylene storage bin and cover liner used in the 2010 Ford Flex

Figure 131: ELV regulation implementation

Figure 132: Joining technologies used in automotive manufacturing.

Figure 133: Laser welded door containing three different steels.

Figure 134: Friction stir welding.

Figure 135: Laser assisted friction stir welding.

Figure 136: Blind rivets

Figure 137: Self-piercing rivets

Figure 138: Tread forming screws

Tables

Table 1: The relative cost of fuel economy measures

Table 2: Global automotive efficiency and GHG standards

Table 3: Automotive industry drivers

Table 4: Mass reduction potential for alternative materials

Table 5: OEM statements and commitments to weight reduction

Table 6: Multi-materials potential body applications

Table 7: Weight reduction in lightweight shock absorber assemblies

Table 8: Steel grades

Table 9: Range of steels available for FSV

Table 10: High aluminium content vehicles with a US NHTSA 5 star safety rating (2009)

Table 11: Summary applications of magnesium in Western Europe and North America

Table 12: Mechanical and physical properties of Magnesium

Table 13: properties of magnesium alloys compared with plastics, steel and aluminium

Table 14: Titanium cost comparison

Table 15: Small TOW and large TOW capacity by supplier 2011

Table 16: Global supply and demand for carbon fibre across all industries

Table 17: DoE US targets and metrics for carbon fibre and composites

Table 18: Advantages and disadvantages of thermoset and thermoplastic composites

Table 19: Thermocomposite materials

Table 20: Mechanical properties of selected fibres and polymers

Table 21: Bio-based content of selected automotive components

Table 22: Selected bio-based automotive components

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