UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



 

FORM 10-K



 

 
(Mark One)     
x   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010

OR

 
o   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period from  to 

Commission File Number: 001-34042



 

MAIDEN HOLDINGS, LTD.

(Exact Name of Registrant As Specified in Its Charter)

 
Bermuda   98-0570192
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

131 Front Street
Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda

(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)

(441) 298-4900

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)



 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 
Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Shares, par value $0.01 per share   The NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None



 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in the definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

     
Large Accelerated Filer o   Accelerated Filer x   Non-Accelerated Filer o
  Smaller Reporting Company o
          (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x

The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2010 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $341.5 million based on the closing sale price of the registrant’s common shares on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date.

As of March 9, 2011, 72,107,104 common shares were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A with respect to the annual general meeting of the shareholders of the registrant scheduled to be held on May 4, 2011 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 


 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MAIDEN HOLDINGS, LTD.
  
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page
PART I
        

Item 1.

Business

    2  

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

    31  

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

    57  

Item 2.

Properties

    57  

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

    57  

Item 4.

(Removed and Reserved)

    58  
PART II
        

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    59  

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

    61  

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    63  

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

    105  

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    107  

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    107  

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

    107  

Item 9B.

Other Information

    109  
PART III
        

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    110  

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

    110  

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

    110  

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

    110  

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

    110  
PART IV
        

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

    111  
Signatures     112  
Exhibits     E-1  
Consolidated Financial Statements     F-1  

Ex-21.1

Subsidiaries of the Registrant

        

Ex-23.1

Consent of BDO USA, LLP

        

Ex-31.1

Section 302 Certification of CEO

        

Ex-31.2

Section 302 Certification of CFO

        

Ex-32.1

Section 906 Certification of CEO

        

Ex-32.2

Section 906 Certification of CFO

        

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PART I

Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements

Certain statements in this Form 10-K, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results and the assumptions upon which those statements are based are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These forward-looking statements include in general statements both with respect to us and the insurance industry and generally are identified with the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “predict”, “estimate”, “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “potential,” “possible,” “could,” “might,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would”, “will be”, “will continue”, “will likely result” and similar expressions. In light of the risks and uncertainties inherent in all forward-looking statements, the inclusion of such statements in this Form 10-K should not be considered as a representation by us or any other person that our objectives or plans or other matters described in any forward-looking statement will be achieved. These statements are based on current plans, estimates assumptions and expectations. Actual results may differ materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements and therefore you should not place undue reliance on them. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statements are set forth in Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K and include but are not limited to:

Our results will fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects;
The property and casualty reinsurance and insurance markets may be affected by cyclical trends;
Rating agencies may downgrade or withdraw our ratings;
Loss of key executives could adversely impact our ability to implement our business strategy;
We may have difficulty integrating acquisitions;
Our use of reinsurance brokers in contract negotiations and production of business;
Our inability to achieve our investment objectives; and
Our controlling shareholders’ ability to determine the outcome of matters requiring shareholder approval.

We caution that the foregoing list of important factors is not intended to be and is not exhaustive. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required by law, and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this paragraph. If one or more risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from what we projected. Any forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K reflect our current view with respect to future events and are subject to these and other risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, results of operations, growth, strategy and liquidity. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements which speak only as of the dates of the documents in which such statements were made.

References in this Form 10-K to the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” or other similar terms mean the consolidated operations of Maiden Holdings, Ltd. and our consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. References in this Form 10-K to the term “Maiden Holdings” or “Maiden” means Maiden Holdings, Ltd. only. References in this Form 10-K to $ are to the lawful currency of the United States, unless otherwise indicated. Any discrepancies in the tables included herein between the amounts listed and the totals thereof are due to rounding.

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Item 1. Business.

General Overview

We are a Bermuda-based holding company, primarily focused on serving the needs of regional and specialty insurers in the United States and Europe by providing innovative reinsurance solutions designed to support their capital needs. We also provide customized reinsurance solutions internationally to clients in support of programs we design and implement for original equipment automobile manufacturers (“OEM’s”). We specialize in reinsurance solutions that optimize financing by providing coverage within the more predictable and actuarially credible lower layers of coverage and/or reinsuring risks that are believed to be lower hazard, more predictable and generally not susceptible to catastrophe claims. Our tailored solutions include a variety of value added services focused on helping our clients grow and prosper. Our principal operating subsidiaries in Bermuda and the United States are rated “A-” (Excellent) with a stable outlook by A.M. Best Company (“A.M. Best”), which rating is the fourth highest of 16 rating levels, and BBB+ (Good) with a stable outlook by Standard & Poor’s, which is the sixth highest of 21 rating levels.

We provide reinsurance through our wholly owned subsidiaries, Maiden Reinsurance Company (“Maiden US”) and Maiden Insurance Company Ltd. (“Maiden Bermuda or Maiden Insurance”) and have operations in the United States and Bermuda. On a more limited basis, Maiden Specialty Insurance Company (“Maiden Specialty”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden US, provides primary insurance on a surplus lines basis focusing on non-catastrophe property and inland marine. Maiden Bermuda does not underwrite any primary insurance business. Internationally, we provide reinsurance-related services through Maiden Global Holdings, Ltd. (“Maiden Global”) and its subsidiaries. Maiden Global primarily focuses on providing branded auto and credit life insurance products through its insurer partners to retail customers in the European Union and other global markets, which also produce reinsurance programs which are underwritten by Maiden Bermuda. Certain international credit life business is also written directly by Maiden Life Försäkrings AB (“Maiden LF”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Maiden Holdings, as part of Maiden Global’s service offerings.

Since our founding in 2007, we have entered into a series of significant strategic transactions that have transformed the scope and scale of our business while keeping our low volatility, low-catastrophe risk profile intact. These transactions have increased our revenue to in excess of $1 billion while strongly positioning our capital in order to extend our business platform both in the U.S. and internationally and include:

Entering into a quota share reinsurance agreement with AmTrust Financial Services, Inc. (“AmTrust”) in 2007 (the “AmTrust Quota Share”);
Acquiring the reinsurance operations of GMAC Insurance from GMACI Holdings, LLC in 2008 (the “GMAC Acquisition”);
Completing a private placement of trust preferred securities of approximately $260.1 million in 2009 (the “TRUPS Offering”);
Entering into the a quota share reinsurance agreement with American Capital Acquisition Corporation (“ACAC”) in 2010 (the “ACAC Quota Share”); and
Acquiring the majority of the reinsurance-related infrastructure, assets and liabilities of U.K.-based GMAC International Insurance Services, Ltd. in 2010 (the “IIS Acquisition”).

Additional information on the AmTrust Quota Share and the ACAC Quota Share can be found in this section of the Form 10-K captioned “Our Operating Segments.” Please also see the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K along with Note 4 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about the GMAC Acquisition and the IIS Acquisition. Note 8 to our Consolidated Financial Statements contains information about the TRUPS Offering.

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Business Strategy

Our goal is to leverage the competitive strengths of our organization and capital structure to generate stable long term returns on capital in excess of 15%. We seek to accomplish this by becoming a premier global preferred provider of customized reinsurance products and services to regional and specialty insurance companies. To achieve this goal, we have adopted the following strategies:

Dedication to Predictable and Stable Operating Segments — we execute this strategy in two ways: (1) focusing on traditional, lower volatility insurance lines of business that are more predictable and thus produce more stable long-term operating results; and (2) placing emphasis on working layer and pro rata reinsurance participations where data is more abundant and predictable;
Targeted Customer Focus — we execute this strategy by developing significant and long term reinsurance relationships with targeted regional and specialty insurance companies for which reinsurance plays a critical element of their capital structure and supporting the long term needs of these companies by providing differentiated reinsurance products as well as an array of support services; and
Efficient Operating Platform — recognizing the mature nature of the reinsurance market, we are focused on maintaining operating expense ratios within the top quartile of the industry. Efficiency is a critical component of maintaining a disciplined underwriting approach.

Our future results, and our ability to generate our targeted return on capital, may be impacted by risks and trends set forth in Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

Our Principal Operating Subsidiaries

Maiden Bermuda is a registered Class 3B Bermuda insurance and reinsurance company that began operations in June 2007. Senior management and all of the staff of Maiden Bermuda are located in our Bermuda headquarters.

Maiden Holdings North America, Ltd. (“Maiden NA”) is our wholly-owned intermediate U.S. holding company and is domiciled in the State of Delaware. Maiden NA issued the underlying securities associated with our TRUPS Offering.

Maiden US, a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden NA, is a licensed property and casualty insurance company domiciled in the state of Missouri. Maiden US was acquired by Maiden NA from GMACI on December 23, 2008.

Maiden Specialty, a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden US and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden NA, underwrites primary insurance on a surplus lines basis. Maiden Specialty was acquired by Maiden US from GMACI on September 1, 2009.

Maiden Re Insurance Services, LLC (“Maiden Re”), a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden NA, is a limited liability company organized in the state of Delaware in January 2008. Maiden Re was acquired by Maiden NA from GMACI on October 31, 2008 and operates as a managing general agent and underwriter for Maiden US.

Maiden Global operates as a reinsurance services and holding company and is a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden Holdings. Maiden Global was organized under the laws of England and Wales and formed in July, 2010.

GMAC VersicherungsService GmbH (“Maiden VS”) is organized under the laws of Germany operates as an insurance producer in Germany and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden Global.

Maiden LF, a wholly owned subsidiary, is a life insurer organized under the laws of Sweden and writes credit life insurance on a primary basis in support of Maiden Global’s business development efforts.

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Our Operating Segments

We operate through three business segments: (i) Diversified Reinsurance; (ii) AmTrust Quota Share; and (iii) ACAC Quota Share.

Our Diversified Reinsurance segment consists of a portfolio of predominantly property and casualty reinsurance business focusing on regional and specialty property and casualty insurance companies located in the United States and Europe. This segment includes the book of assumed reinsurance business purchased in the GMAC Acquisition and IIS Acquisitions. The business associated with the GMAC Acquisition is underwritten by Maiden US and Maiden Specialty. The business associated with the IIS Acquisition is underwritten by Maiden Bermuda, which also underwrites business independent of the business associated with the IIS Acquisition, the AmTrust Quota Share and ACAC Quota Share.

Our AmTrust Quota Share segment consists of the business ceded to us pursuant to our Master Agreement (the “Master Agreement”) with AmTrust. AmTrust, through its affiliates, cedes approximately 40% of its business to us pursuant to a quota share reinsurance arrangement.

Our ACAC Quota Share segment consists of the business ceded to us pursuant to our agreement with ACAC which, through its affiliates, cedes approximately 25% of its business to us pursuant to a quota share reinsurance agreement.

Financial data relating to our three segments is included in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K. The net premiums written and earned in each segment for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 were as follows:

           
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     Net
Premium
Written
  % of Total   Net
Premium
Written
  % of Total   Net
Premium
Written
  % of Total
     ($ in
Millions)
       ($ in
Millions)
       ($ in
Millions)
    
Diversified Reinsurance   $ 554.1       45.1 %    $ 658.0       63.9 %    $ 288.7       39.7 % 
AmTrust Quota Share     468.0       38.1 %      372.4       36.1 %      438.7       60.3 % 
ACAC Quota Share     205.7       16.8 %            %            % 
Total   $ 1,227.8       100.0 %    $ 1,030.4       100.0 %    $ 727.4       100.0 % 

           
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     Net
Premium
Earned
  % of Total   Net
Premium
Earned
  % of Total   Net
Premium
Earned
  % of Total
     ($ in
Millions)
       ($ in
Millions)
       ($ in
Millions)
    
Diversified Reinsurance   $ 601.2       51.4 %    $ 568.0       61.7 %    $ 85.1       20.3 % 
AmTrust Quota Share     445.1       38.0 %      351.9       38.3 %      335.1       79.7 % 
ACAC Quota Share     123.5       10.6 %            %            % 
Total   $ 1,169.8       100.0 %    $ 919.9       100.0 %    $ 420.2       100.0 % 

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The following table shows an analysis of our net premium written and earned by client location and geographic location. In case of business assumed from AmTrust, it is the location of the relevant AmTrust subsidiaries:

     
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions)
Gross premiums written – North America   $ 1,098.7     $ 947.4     $ 637.8  
Gross premiums written – Other (predominately in Europe)     199.4       101.3       89.6  
Net premiums written – North America     1,028.5       929.1       637.8  
Net premiums written – Other (predominantly in Europe)     199.3       101.3       89.6  
Net premiums earned – North America     1,038.9       838.2       351.4  
Net premiums earned – Other (predominantly in Europe)     130.9       81.7       68.6  

Financial data relating to geographic areas in which we operate and principal products may be found in note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K.

Diversified Reinsurance

General

The Diversified Reinsurance segment of our reinsurance business consists of a varied portfolio of property and casualty and accident and health reinsurance business focusing on regional and specialty property and casualty insurance companies located in the United States and Europe. Since July 1, 2009, this business is primarily written by Maiden US. On November 30, 2010, the business associated with the IIS Acquisition is now part of this segment and is underwritten by Maiden Bermuda, with the exception of certain credit life policies written by Maiden LF, which are not material to the overall results of the segment in 2010.

It also includes the net written premiums of Maiden Specialty, which also are not material to the overall results of the segment. The reinsurance written by Maiden US is primarily written through treaties with other insurers on a quota share or excess of loss basis, as well as on a facultative basis, all of which are marketed primarily through third-party party intermediaries but also on a direct basis. Maiden Bermuda also provides quota share reinsurance support to Maiden US and Maiden LF.

In a proportional reinsurance arrangement (also known as pro rata reinsurance, quota share reinsurance or participating reinsurance), the reinsurer shares a proportional part of the original premiums of the reinsured. In return, the reinsurer assumes a proportional share of the losses incurred by the cedant. The reinsurer pays the ceding company a commission, which is generally based on the ceding company’s cost of acquiring the business being reinsured (including commissions, premium taxes, assessments and miscellaneous administrative expenses) and may also include a profit.

Non-proportional (or excess of loss) reinsurance indemnifies the reinsured against all or a specified portion of losses on underlying insurance policies in excess of a specified amount, which is called a level, retention or attachment point. Non-proportional business is written in layers and a reinsurer or group of reinsurers accepts a band of coverage up to a specified amount. The total coverage purchased by the cedant is referred to as a program and is typically placed with predetermined reinsurers in pre-negotiated layers. Any liability exceeding the upper limit of the program reverts to the ceding company.

Facultative reinsurance (proportional or non-proportional) is the reinsurance of individual risks. The reinsurer separately rates and underwrites each risk rather than assuming all or a portion of a class of risks as in the case of treaty reinsurance.

A combination of general market and competitive conditions, along with the underlying financial performance and capital levels of individual ceding companies, including those considered by rating agencies and regulators, often influence reinsurance purchasing decisions of individual ceding companies. Historically, Maiden US has written greater amounts of quota share business than excess of loss business reflecting the needs of its clients. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, 60%, 63% and 53% of Maiden US’ net written premium was written on a quota share basis, respectively.

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Maiden US began operations in 1983 through Maiden Re (previously GMAC Re). Since its inception, the business has focused on developing a portfolio of assumed reinsurance with an emphasis on relatively predictable reinsurance with low limits of participation on both a treaty and facultative basis. By design, the underwriting portfolio was developed to mitigate volatility and generate stable operating performance. Our underwriting strategy has de-emphasized property catastrophe reinsurance and participations in more volatile casualty lines such as D&O and professional liability. Over its years in operation, the underwriting infrastructure and capabilities were expanded to include an accident and health reinsurance portfolio, a specialty oriented property and casualty reinsurance and property excess and surplus lines insurance business and, the most significant portfolio, a regional and specialty oriented property and casualty treaty reinsurance business.

We employ sophisticated risk management, disciplined actuarially based pricing and strong technical underwriting in developing and maintaining this portfolio. We use both proprietary and vendor developed technology systems to administer and manage the portfolio. The business has been carefully developed under the active management of multi-functional underwriting teams with performance accountability. The entire related infrastructure of Maiden Re was acquired in the GMAC Acquisition and added to existing capabilities along with over 80 active client relationships. We are using this acquired infrastructure to continue to expand and develop the North American underwriting portfolio.

For certain clients, Maiden Re provides enhanced security in the form of an internally developed dedicated trust agreement for the reinsurance balances payable to that client. We believe this reinsurance security provides us with a sustainable competitive advantage that is both attractive to new clients and improves retention of existing ones. The trust accounts are funded on an individual client basis with cash and other fixed maturity securities. We can actively manage the cash and investments in the accounts and any interest earned is ours and does not remain in the trust accounts. The balances are adjusted quarterly to correspond to the liabilities owed to the client, including individually computed Incurred But Not Reported (“IBNR”) reserves. The clients can withdraw assets from the trusts under contractually limited circumstances. As of December 31, 2010, we had cash and fixed maturity securities totaling $1,089.6 million in these trusts, which is part of the $1,518.9 million restricted assets disclosed in note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

The business associated with the IIS Acquisition is written through treaties with other insurers on a quota share basis, which (as previously noted), are written by Maiden Bermuda, with the exception of business written through Maiden LF which is written on a primary basis. All of this business is marketed primarily through Maiden Global’s business development teams who partner with OEM’s and local primary insurers to design and implement point of sale insurance programs which generate fee income for the auto manufacturer and insurance premiums for the primary insurer. Typically the primary insurer agrees to reinsure an agreed upon percentage of the underlying business to Maiden Bermuda as part of the overall arrangement. Maiden Bermuda is generally not obligated to underwrite the OEM programs Maiden Global designs.

There are instances where Maiden Global only collects a fee for designing and facilitating the sale of insurance programs. Our fee income is primarily generated by Maiden VS in Germany and Austria through its point of sale producers in select OEM dealerships, with other smaller fee income programs in place globally. We seek to expand these fee generating arrangements through the Maiden Global business development teams contacts with OEM’s globally. For the period November 30, 2010 to December 31, 2010, we earned gross fee income of $0.8 million, which is netted against commission and other acquisition expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.

As of December 31, 2010, there were 10 active reinsurance clients that were part of the business associated with the IIS Acquisition. With the exception of business written by Maiden LF from the date of closing, the majority of the business written during 2010 as part of this segment is the result of a 100% quota share reinsurance agreement entered into at closing between Maiden Bermuda and GMAC International Insurance Company, Ltd. (“GMAC IICL”) for the subject business. Each reinsurance contract will need to be novated by the primary insurer from GMAC IICL to Maiden Bermuda, which is expected to occur during 2011.

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The business associated with the IIS Acquisition is written in the following countries:

   
  For the Period from
November 30 to
December 31, 2010
     ($ in Millions)   % of Total
Germany   $ 10.6       35.8 % 
Sweden     6.4       21.6 % 
Russia     1.8       6.1 % 
Chile     2.2       7.4 % 
All other     8.6       29.1 % 
Total   $ 29.6       100.0 % 

The breakdown of this business by line of business is as follows:

   
  For the Period from
November 30 to
December 31, 2010
     ($ in Millions)   % of Total
Personal Auto   $ 18.5       62.5 % 
Credit Life     11.1       37.5 % 
Total   $ 29.6       100.0 % 

The distribution of the premium written by both country and by line of business for the period November 30 to December 31, 2010 is not necessarily reflective of these respective distributions on a full calendar year basis. On a geographic distribution basis, Germany historically constitutes a greater proportion of the overall premium written, typically over 40%. On a line of business basis, Personal Auto historically constitutes a greater proportion of the overall premium written, typically over 70%. However, future distributions of premium by country and by line of business may vary from historical experience.

Strategy

Maiden Bermuda and Maiden US are specialty reinsurers with an efficient operating platform that target lines of business and types of contracts that are more predictable than the market as a whole, allowing stability of earnings over time. Maiden Specialty primarily provides specialty property coverage written on a surplus lines basis. Most business is written as reinsurance, that is, insurance of other insurance companies. The primary focus is regional and specialty customers who rely on reinsurance for capital support and/or to reduce their risk. The majority of our customers are regional or super-regional insurance companies or specialty insurers. With these customers, we believe it is possible to develop long term relationships which not only survive the insurance market cycles, but provide benefits to both reinsurer and customer during turbulent times.

In our Diversified Reinsurance segment, we reinsure property and casualty lines of business, but de-emphasize lines of business such as professional liability, which we consider more volatile, and we do not offer traditional catastrophe reinsurance on a stand-alone basis. We occasionally provide limited catastrophe coverage to customers that purchase other reinsurance from us.

We are primarily a lead reinsurer, meaning that we develop our own terms rather than accepting a small share of another reinsurer’s program in a subscription market. We try to be the primary, if not sole, reinsurer for our customers. On business written as part of the IIS Acquisition, Maiden Bermuda is the only reinsurer on these contracts. Our handling of this business considers the economics of the individual customer and therefore is less susceptible to large increases and decreases following market cycles. We are able to attract preferred customers because we offer a secure product and an emphasis on client service. By maintaining significant relationships with customers, we are able to develop strong economies of scale and maintain highly competitive operating efficiencies, a critical element of our business strategy.

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We offer reinsurance on both a quota share basis and excess of loss basis. We believe that our policy of providing our customers security for our reinsurance obligations through collateral trusts gives us a competitive advantage. In the current economic climate, we also believe that reinsurance brokers and insurers, as well as rating agencies, are scrutinizing the credit-worthiness of reinsurers more closely than in the recent past and recognize that our trust product offers a high level of security. We also utilize a partnership concept developed over our twenty-eight year operating history to develop long-term customer relationships. This concept entails the offer to our customers of our underwriting, claims, actuarial, marketing and accounting expertise through tailored services which support their businesses and goals.

Within the primary excess property business underwritten by Maiden Specialty, an experienced and sophisticated team underwrites complex property business on an excess and layered basis as a surplus lines insurer. To reduce the exposure to natural catastrophes that some of these policies in this segment may contain, we purchase catastrophe reinsurance to limit our maximum exposure to any one event. We also purchase other reinsurance to limit the impact of individual large losses in this segment.

AmTrust Quota Share

General

AmTrust is our largest customer and is a multinational specialty property and casualty insurance holding company with operations in the United States, Europe and Bermuda. AmTrust’s principal operating subsidiaries are rated “A” (Excellent) with a stable outlook by A.M. Best, which rating is the third highest of 16 rating levels.

AmTrust has three business segments:

Small commercial business insurance, which includes workers’ compensation, commercial package and other commercial lines produced by retail agents and brokers in the United States;
Specialty risk and extended warranty coverage for consumer and commercial goods and custom designed coverages, such as accidental damage plans and payment protection plans offered in connection with the sale of consumer and commercial goods, in the United States, United Kingdom and certain other European countries; and
Specialty program property and casualty insurance for homogeneous, narrowly defined classes of insured’s, requiring an in-depth knowledge of the insured’s industry segment.

Under our quota share reinsurance agreement (the “Quota Share Agreement”) with AmTrust’s Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary, AmTrust International Insurance, Ltd. (“AII”), effective as of July 1, 2007, we reinsure 40% of AmTrust’s written premium (net of commissions, in the case of AmTrust’s U.K. subsidiary), net of reinsurance with unaffiliated reinsurers, on AmTrust’s existing lines of business as of the effective date. In addition, we have the option to reinsure future lines of business added by AmTrust, and we have exercised that option from time to time. The Quota Share Agreement had an initial term of three years which has been extended for three years through June 30, 2013, and will automatically renew for further successive three year terms thereafter unless either party notifies the other of its election not to renew not less than nine months prior to the end of any such three year term. In addition, either party is entitled to terminate on thirty days’ notice or less upon the occurrence of certain early termination events, which include a default in payment, insolvency, change in control of AII or Maiden Bermuda, run-off, or a reduction of 50% or more of the shareholders’ equity of Maiden Bermuda or the combined shareholders’ equity of AII and the AmTrust subsidiaries.

ACAC Quota Share

General

ACAC is our second largest customer and is an insurance holding company owned by the 2005 Michael Karfunkel Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (the “Trust”), which in turn is controlled by Michael Karfunkel (“Karfunkel”), individually, and AmTrust. ACAC, on March 1, 2010, acquired from GMAC Insurance Holdings, Inc. and Motors Insurance Corporation (collectively, “GMAC”), GMAC’s personal lines automobile business. Karfunkel is a Founding Shareholder of Maiden. In addition, Karfunkel is the chairman of the board of directors of both ACAC and AmTrust.

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On March 1, 2010, Maiden Bermuda entered into a three year 25% quota share reinsurance agreement with ACAC. Effective March 1, 2010, we reinsure 25% of the net premiums of the GMAC personal lines business, pursuant to a 50% quota share reinsurance agreement (“ACAC Quota Share”) with the 13 GMAC personal lines insurance companies, as cedents, and the Company, American Capital Partners Re, Ltd. (formerly known as MK Re, Ltd.), a Bermuda reinsurer which is a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of the Trust, and AmTrust, as reinsurers. We have a 50% participation in the ACAC Quota Share, by which we receive 25% of net premiums of the personal lines business. The ACAC Quota Share provides that the reinsurers, severally, in accordance with their participation percentages, shall receive 50% of the net premium of the GMAC personal lines insurance companies and assume 50% of the related net losses. The ACAC Quota Share has an initial term of three years and shall renew automatically for successive three year terms unless terminated by written notice not less than nine months prior to the expiration of the current term. Notwithstanding the foregoing, our participation in the ACAC Quota Share may be terminated by ACAC on 60 days written notice in the event the Company becomes insolvent, is placed into receivership, its financial condition is impaired by 50% of the amount of its surplus at the inception of the ACAC Quota Share or latest anniversary, whichever is greater, is subject to a change of control, or ceases writing new and renewal business. ACAC also may terminate the agreement on nine months written notice following the effective date of the initial public offering or private placement of stock by ACAC or a subsidiary. Maiden Bermuda may terminate its participation in the ACAC Quota Share on 60 days written notice in the event ACAC is subject to a change of control, cease writing new and renewal business, effects a reduction in their net retention without Maiden Bermuda’s consent or fails to remit premium as required by the terms of the ACAC Quota Share.

Risk Management

General

Central to the reinsurance business is the assumption and management of risk. Our risk management discipline therefore focuses on both quantitative and qualitative elements as the means to achieve targeted shareholder returns through a balanced analysis and assessment of these elements. The quantitative aspect of our risk management practice focuses on understanding and controlling a broad array of risk parameters in order to achieve desired returns; the qualitative aspect of our risk management practice focuses on identifying and assessing risks, and taking the necessary steps to reduce or mitigate risks, or those risks that could threaten the achievement of our business objectives.

We believe that we have developed a strong risk management culture within Maiden through the establishment of various processes and controls which focus on our risk exposures. We are continually reviewing and enhancing these processes and developing additional processes that may be necessary to achieve our business strategies and objectives within our risk management practice. Specific risk management practices that have been or are being developed to meet our risk management goals include:

Tracking portfolio volatility over time;
Identifying risk mitigation opportunities and implementing them as appropriate;
Understanding the capital required to support the underwriting portfolio and individual contracts;
Monitoring and managing exposure by line of business and geographic concentration;
Monitoring and limiting catastrophe aggregates and concentrations; and
Monitoring and managing operational risks across the organization.

Our management-based Risk Management Oversight Committee, which consists of members of the Company’s executive management, focuses primarily on identifying correlations among our primary categories of risk, developing metrics to assess our overall risk appetite, establish appropriate risk parameters and tolerances, performing an annual risk assessment and continually reviewing factors that may impact our organizational risk. This risk governance structure is complemented by our internal audit department, which assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of our internal control systems and coordinates risk-based audits and compliance reviews and other specific initiatives to evaluate and address risk within targeted areas of our

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business. Our Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) is dynamic, with periodic updates being made to reflect organizational processes, as well as staying current with changes within our industry and the global economic environment.

Our management’s internal ERM efforts are overseen by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. This Committee, comprised solely of independent directors, assesses whether management is addressing risk issues in a timely and appropriate manner. Internal controls and ERM can provide a reasonable but not absolute assurance that our control objectives will be met. The possibility of material financial loss remains in spite of our ERM efforts.

Underwriting Risk Management

Internal underwriting controls are established by our underwriting executives who are the Chief Underwriting Officer in Bermuda and the President of Maiden US, working in close coordination with our Chief Executive Officer. Underwriting authority is delegated to the managers in each business segment and to underwriters in accordance with prudent practice and an understanding of each underwriter’s capabilities. Our policy is to grant each underwriting team a specified limit, consistent with our operating guidelines. Our underwriters understand our return on equity guidelines. Our target performance goals and guidelines are regularly reviewed by management to reflect changes in market conditions, interest rates, capital requirements and market-expected returns.

We have a disciplined approach to underwriting and risk management that relies heavily upon the collective underwriting expertise of our management and staff. This expertise is in turn guided by the following underwriting principles:

we will underwrite and accept only those risks we know and understand;
we will perform our own independent pricing or risk review on all risks we accept; and
we will accept only those risks that are expected to earn a risk-adjusted return on capital commensurate with the risk they present.

Before we review any program proposal, we consider the appropriateness of the client, including the quality of its management, its financial stability and its risk management strategy. In addition, we require each program to include significant information on the nature of the perils to be included and detailed exposure and loss information, including rate changes and changes in underwriting and claims handling guidelines over time. We often conduct an on-site audit of the client’s operations prior to quoting. If a program meets our underwriting criteria, we then develop a proposal which contemplates the prospective client’s needs, that account’s risk/reward profile, as well as our corporate risk objectives. We have fully integrated our internal claims, underwriting and pricing actuarial staff into the underwriting and decision making process. We use in-depth actuarial, claims and exposure analyses to evaluate contracts prior to quoting. We underwrite and accept property and casualty reinsurance business, accident and health reinsurance business and certain specialty property insurance business. In general, we seek to underwrite reinsurance business that historically is lower in volatility and more predictable than other classes of reinsurance business such as catastrophe reinsurance, which we generally seek to avoid. As part of our risk management process, we seek to identify those casualty and specialty exposures that are most likely to be simultaneously influenced by significant events. These exposures are then jointly tracked to ensure that we do not develop an excessive accumulation of exposure to that particular type of event.

In addition to the above technical and analytical practices, our underwriters use a variety of means, including specific contract terms, to manage our exposure to loss. These include occurrence limits, adjustable ceding commissions and premiums, aggregate limits, reinstatement provisions and loss sensitive features. Additionally, our underwriters use appropriate exclusions, terms and conditions to further eliminate particular risks or exposures that our underwriting team deems to be outside of the intent of the coverage we are willing to offer.

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In limited cases, the risks assumed by us are partially reinsured with other third party reinsurers. Reinsurance ceded varies by segment and line of business based on a number of factors, including market conditions. The benefits of ceding risks include reducing exposure on individual risks and/or protecting against catastrophic risks. Reinsurance ceded does not legally discharge us from our liabilities to the original policyholder in respect of the risk being reinsured. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

Catastrophe Risk Management

While we generally avoid catastrophe exposed reinsurance risks, certain risks we reinsure are exposed to catastrophic loss events. As a general rule, we seek to limit our modeled one-in-250 year catastrophe exposure to any one event to not exceed our operating income. At December 31, 2010, our one-in-250 year catastrophe exposure to both a hurricane or earthquake event was less than $50 million. To achieve our catastrophe risk management objectives, we utilize commercially available tools to quantify and monitor the various risks we accept.

We have licensed catastrophe modeling software from one of the principal modeling firms, Applied Insurance Research (“AIR”). These software tools use exposure data provided by our insured’s and ceding company clients to simulate catastrophic losses. We take an active role in the evaluation of these commercial catastrophe models, providing feedback to AIR to improve the efficiencies and accuracy of their models. We use modeling not just for the underwriting of individual transactions but also to optimize the total return and risk of our underwriting portfolio. We have high standards for the quality and levels of detailed exposure data provided by our clients and have an expressed preference for the most detailed location information available, including data at the zip code or postal code level or finer. Data provided at more summary levels, such as counties, is conservatively modeled. The primary business underwritten by Maiden Specialty uses exposure information by location which is geo-coded. Data output from the software described above is incorporated in our proprietary pricing models. Our proprietary systems include those for modeling risks associated with property catastrophe, property and workers’ compensation business, various casualty and specialty pricing models, as well as our proprietary portfolio risk management model. These systems allow us to monitor our pricing and risk on a contract by contract basis in each of our segments and business lines.

Retrocessions

We use retrocessional agreements to a limited extent to mitigate volatility and to reduce our exposure on certain specialty reinsurance risks and to mitigate the effect of a major catastrophic events. These agreements provide for reduction of property risk losses, casualty occurrence losses and catastrophe occurrence losses on specific treaties. We remain liable to our cedants to the extent that the retrocessionaires do not meet their obligations under retrocessional agreements, and these retrocessions are subject to credit risk in all cases and to aggregate loss limits in certain cases. We maintain a credit risk review process that identifies authorized acceptable reinsurers and have no impaired balances. At December 31, 2010, we had approximately $6.7 million of reinsurance recoverable under such agreements.

Competition

The reinsurance industry is mature and highly competitive. Reinsurance companies compete on the basis of many factors, including premium rates, general reputation and perceived financial strength, the terms and conditions of the products offered, ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, speed of claims payments, reputation and experience in risks underwritten, capacity and coverages offered and various other factors. These factors operate at the individual market participant level and generally in the aggregate across the reinsurance industry. In addition, underlying economic conditions and variations in the reinsurance buying practices of ceding companies, by participant and in the aggregate, contribute to cyclical movements in rates, terms and conditions and may impact industry aggregate results and subsequently the level of completion in the reinsurance industry.

We compete with major U.S. and non-U.S. reinsurers, including other Bermuda-based reinsurers, on an international and regional basis. In our Diversified Reinsurance segment, we compete with reinsurers that provide property and casualty-based lines of reinsurance such as: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd., Munich

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Reinsurance America, Inc., Platinum Underwriters Holdings, Ltd., PartnerRe Ltd., Hannover Re Group, QBE Insurance Group, Transatlantic Holdings, Inc., Endurance Specialty Holdings, Ltd., Scor Reinsurance Company, White Mountains Re Group, Odyssey Re Holdings Corp., W.R. Berkley Corp. and Everest Re Group, Ltd.

Many of these entities have significantly larger amounts of capital, higher ratings from rating agencies and more employees than Maiden Holdings and its subsidiaries and have established long-term and continuing business relationships throughout the industry, which can be significant competitive advantages. However, we believe the enhanced security that we offer our clients through collateral trusts, our niche specialist orientation, our operating efficiency and our careful relationship management capabilities help offset these advantages and allows us to effectively compete for profitable business.

In addition, risk-linked securities and derivative and other non-traditional risk transfer mechanisms and vehicles are being developed and offered by other parties, including entities other than insurance and reinsurance companies. The availability of these non-traditional products could reduce the demand for traditional insurance and reinsurance. A number of new, proposed or potential industry or legislative developments could further increase competition in our industry. New competition from these developments may result in fewer contracts written, lower premium rates, increased expenses for customer acquisition and retention and less favorable policy terms and conditions, which could have a material adverse impact on our growth and profitability.

During 2010, the level of competition in the property and casualty insurance and reinsurance industries continued to increase, continuing trends that have been underway for approximately the last five underwriting years. This occurred despite an increased level of catastrophes, mostly natural, that occurred in 2010 compared to 2009 and other recent years. Consistent with the Company’s business model, our results of operations were not adversely affected by catastrophes.

This increased level of catastrophes was more than offset by continuing improvement in the industry’s investments in risk assets in 2010, which increased capital on both a statutory and generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) basis in the United States at both the individual market participant level and in the aggregate across the reinsurance industry more generally. While the ultimate impact remains unclear, we believe elevated levels of competition are likely to persist into 2011 and potentially beyond, absent events that: 1) significantly reduce both individual market participants and aggregated reinsurance industry capital levels or; 2) significantly increase demand for reinsurance, particularly as premium growth is likely to be challenged by slower economic growth.

Our Financial Strength Ratings

Ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance and reinsurance companies and are important to our ability to market and sell our products. We believe that the primary users of such ratings include brokers, ceding companies and investors. Insurance ratings are also used by insurance and reinsurance intermediaries as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers and reinsurers. Periodically, rating agencies evaluate us to confirm that we continue to meet their criteria for the ratings assigned to us by them.

A.M. Best and Standard & Poor’s have each developed a rating system to provide an opinion of an insurer’s or reinsurer’s financial strength and ability to meet ongoing obligations to its policyholders and not an opinion on an insurer’s or reinsurer’s overall capacity and willingness to meet its financial commitments as they become due. Each rating reflects that rating agency’s independent opinion of the capitalization, management and sponsorship of the entity to which it relates, and is neither an evaluation directed to investors in our common shares nor a recommendation to buy, sell or hold our common shares.

A.M. Best maintains a letter scale rating system ranging from “A++” (Superior) to “F” (In Liquidation). Standard & Poor’s maintains a letter scale rating system ranging from “AAA” (Extremely Strong) to “R” (Under Regulatory Supervision).

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Our subsidiaries, Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty, each currently has a financial strength rating of “A-” (Excellent, the fourth highest out of fifteen rating levels) with a stable outlook from A.M. Best and “BBB+” (Good, the sixth highest out of 21 rating levels) with a stable outlook from Standard & Poor’s.

We can offer no assurances that our ratings will remain at their current levels, or that our security will be accepted by brokers and our insureds and reinsureds. A ratings downgrade or the potential for such a downgrade, or failure to obtain a necessary rating, could adversely affect both our relationships with clients, brokers and other distributors of our existing products and services and new sales of our products and services. We believe the collateralization of reinsurance obligations provides additional financial protection for our clients and a significant point of differentiation from its competitors, allowing us to compete with higher rated reinsurers.

Distribution of Our Reinsurance Products

We market our Diversified Reinsurance segment in the United States and Bermuda primarily through third-party intermediaries and as well as directly through our own marketing team. Our direct marketing activities are generally focused on insurers with a demonstrated preference and propensity to utilize direct distribution reinsurers. We believe this combination affords us flexibility and efficiency. In the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, the sources of gross premiums written by our Diversified Reinsurance segment were as follows:

   
  Percentage of Gross Premiums
Written for the Year Ended
December 31,
     2010   2009
Brokers     73.0 %      76.8 % 
Direct     27.0 %      23.2 % 
Total     100.0 %      100.0 % 

In the year ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, our top three brokers represented approximately 41% and 62%, respectively of gross premiums written by our Diversified Reinsurance segment. A breakdown of our distribution by broker is provided in the table below.

   
  Percentage of Gross Premiums
Written for the Year Ended
December 31,
     2010   2009
Broker
                 
Marsh (including Guy Carpenter and Company)     31.0 %      42.2 % 
Aon Benfield Group, Ltd.     16.9 %      30.8 % 
Beach & Associates, Ltd.     8.4 %      2.9 % 
Risk Insurance Consulting Services     4.5 %      8.4 % 
All Others (including direct)     39.2 %      15.7 % 
Total     100.0 %       100.0 %  

Reserve for Losses and Loss Expenses

General

We are required by applicable insurance laws and regulations in Bermuda, the United States, Sweden and US GAAP to establish loss reserves to cover our estimated liability for the payment of all losses and loss expenses incurred with respect to premiums earned on the policies and treaties that we write. These reserves are balance sheet liabilities representing estimates of losses and loss expenses which ultimately we are required to pay for insured or reinsured claims that have occurred as of or before the balance sheet date. It is our policy to establish these losses and loss expense reserves using prudent actuarial methods after reviewing all information known to us as of the date they are recorded.

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These amounts include case reserves, additional case reserves (“ACRs”) and provisions for IBNR reserves. Case reserves are established for losses that have been reported to us, and not yet paid. ACRs are established for particular circumstances where, on the basis of individual loss reports, the Company estimates that the particular loss or collection of losses covered by a treaty may be greater than those advised by the cedant. Our claims department evaluates all significant losses reported to us and if appropriate will include a provision for additional case reserves if we feel the ceding company’s estimate of the claim is not adequate. IBNR reserves represent the estimated cost of losses that have occurred but have not been reported to us and include a provision for additional development on case reserves. We establish case reserves based on information from the ceding company, reinsurance intermediaries, and when appropriate, consultations with independent legal counsel. The IBNR reserves are established by management based on reported losses and loss expenses and actuarially determined estimates of ultimate losses and loss expenses.

We use a variety of standard actuarial methods to estimate ultimate expected losses and loss expenses applying appropriate actuarial judgment in the determination of ultimate losses.

The majority of business is reserved individually by cedant with the remainder reserved in homogeneous groupings. Ultimate losses across the reserve segments are converted to IBNR reserves by subtracting inception to date paid losses case reserves and ACRs from those amounts. The accumulation of case and IBNR reserves across the reserve segments results in indicated reserves which are the basis for the carried reserves for financial statements. Ultimate losses are also used to estimate premium and commission accruals for accounts with adjustable features.

Property catastrophe reserves are estimated by event and are revisited monthly. Estimated ultimate catastrophe losses may be based on output from catastrophe models early on and then on ceding company estimates and the reserving methods above.

Loss reserves do not represent an exact calculation of liability; rather, loss reserves are estimates of what we expect the ultimate resolution and administration of claims will cost. These estimates are based on actuarial and statistical projections and on our assessment of currently available data, as well as estimates of future trends in claims severity and frequency, judicial theories of liability and other factors. Loss reserve estimates are refined as experience develops and as claims are reported and resolved. Establishing an appropriate level of loss reserves is an inherently uncertain process. The uncertainties may be greater for reinsurers like us than for reinsurers with an established operating and claims history and a larger number of insurance and reinsurance transactions. In addition, the relatively long reporting periods between when a loss occurs and when it may be reported to our claims department for our casualty lines of business also increase the uncertainties of our reserve estimates in such lines. To assist us in establishing appropriate reserves for losses and loss expenses, we analyze a significant amount of internal data and external insurance industry information with respect to the pricing environment and loss settlement patterns. In combination with our individual account pricing analyses and our internal loss settlement patterns, this industry information is used to guide our loss and loss expense estimates. These estimates are reviewed quarterly, at a high level of detail, and any adjustments are reflected in earnings in the periods in which they are determined.

There is a significant amount of estimation involved in determining ultimate losses and loss expenses. We believe that while our case reserves and IBNR reserves are sufficient to cover losses assumed by us, there can be no assurance that losses will not deviate from our reserves, possibly by material amounts. To the extent actual reported losses exceed estimated losses, the carried estimate of the ultimate losses will be increased, which represents unfavorable reserve development, and to the extent actual reported losses are less than our expectations, the carried estimate of ultimate losses will be reduced, which represents favorable reserve development.

Loss Portfolio Transfer of the GMAC RE Loss Reserves and Ongoing Novation of Certain Related Reserves and Liabilities

In connection with the GMAC Acquisition, Maiden Bermuda entered into a loss portfolio transfer agreement with Motors Insurance Company (“Motors”) whereby it assumed the outstanding loss reserves, including a provision for IBNR reserves associated with the GMAC RE LLC (“GMAC RE”) business acquired ($755.6 million at October 31, 2008). We received cash and U.S. government and U.S. government agency fixed maturity investments equal to the amount of loss reserves.

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The loss reserves assumed by Maiden Bermuda from Motors represented the estimate of the unpaid losses to be paid on all of the reinsurance contracts produced by GMAC RE from 1983 until October 31, 2008. Because the entire related infrastructure of GMAC RE, including the actuarial and claims procedures and personnel were acquired by us, the methodology for establishing the estimates for losses and loss expense have been consistently applied. While we believe that we have made a reasonable estimate of loss and loss expense reserves, the ultimate loss experience may be higher or lower than the total reserves recorded by the Company. A breakdown of the case and IBNR reserves assumed under the loss portfolio transfer as of October 31, 2008 by underwriting year is provided in the table below.

     
Underwriting Year*   Case
Reserves
  IBNR
Reserves
  Total
Reserves
     ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)
2000 & Prior   $ 27.3     $ 20.7     $ 48.0  
2001     10.4       10.8       21.2  
2002     20.1       28.3       48.4  
2003     15.0       28.3       43.3  
2004     16.5       32.6       49.1  
2005     27.8       51.5       79.3  
2006     59.4       93.0       152.4  
2007     60.2       112.0       172.2  
January 1 to October 31, 2008     48.3       93.4       141.7  
Total   $ 285.0     $ 470.6     $ 755.6  

* Underwriting year comprises all policies written or renewed during the year and all losses relating to those same policies, whenever they may occur.

These loss reserves are treated as retroactive reinsurance under applicable GAAP. Accordingly, any subsequent change in the estimate of the subject losses since the date of transfer are amortized into the Company’s results of operations based upon the cumulative payment of actual claims in relation to the subject losses transferred. The Company amortized gains as a reduction of losses incurred of $25.3 million, $10.7 million and $1.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.

The total favorable development relating to the loss portfolio transfer since the closing of the GMAC Acquisition has been $43.8 million and the remaining $6.2 million is recorded as a deferred gain in the Company’s loss reserves at December 31, 2010 that are included in the accompanying balance sheet, including the unamortized gains described above. A breakdown of the remaining case and IBNR reserves assumed under the loss portfolio transfer as of December 31, 2010 was as follows:

     
Underwriting Year*   Case
Reserves
  IBNR
Reserves
  Total
Reserves
     ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)
2000 & Prior   $ 22.4     $ 15.9     $ 38.3  
2001     6.1       6.9       13.0  
2002     19.1       16.7       35.8  
2003     14.8       15.5       30.3  
2004     14.0       13.8       27.8  
2005     20.4       19.6       40.0  
2006     28.2       34.9       63.1  
2007     33.5       37.2       70.7  
January 1 to October 31, 2008     25.2       43.3       68.5  
Total   $ 183.7     $ 203.8     $ 387.5  

* Underwriting year comprises all policies written or renewed during the year and all losses relating to those same policies, whenever they may occur.

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Under the terms of the GMAC Acquisition, we had the right for a transition period of twenty-four months, which expired on October 31, 2010, to have Motors front certain reinsurance business in cases where we do not have the necessary regulatory licenses or approvals. In 2009, Maiden US received all of the necessary regulatory licenses and approvals. Therefore reinsurance premiums underwritten by Maiden Re in the United States have been recorded both in Maiden US and pursuant to the terms of the quota share reinsurance agreement between the companies, by Maiden Bermuda. This business is included in the Diversified Reinsurance segment and represents 91.6% and 93.9% of the written premium for this segment for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

In June 2009, A.M. Best downgraded its rating of Motors to B++, which is an insufficient rating for many of our reinsurance clients. The impact of this downgrade is minimal as most of our clients have their liabilities collateralized in trusts. Nevertheless, for current clients we have offered the opportunity to novate all of their policies with Motors underwritten by Maiden Re. As of December 31, 2010, approximately $140.8 million of liabilities relating to the Loss Portfolio Transfer have been novated.

Loss Portfolio Transfer of the IIS Acquisition Loss Reserves and Ongoing Novation of Certain Related Reserves and Liabilities

In connection with the IIS Acquisition, Maiden Bermuda entered into a loss Portfolio Transfer Agreement and Quota Share Reinsurance (“IIS Reinsurance Agreement”) with GMAC IICL whereby it assumed the outstanding loss reserves, including a provision for IBNR reserves associated with the IIS business ($98.8 million at November 30, 2010). This does not include the $3.2 million of outstanding loss reserves, including a provision for IBNR reserves associated with the acquisition of Maiden LF. Pursuant to the terms of the purchase agreement, the substantial majority of the subject reinsurance contracts are collateralized by letters of credit or trust agreements. Until such time as those contracts are novated from GMAC IICL to Maiden Bermuda (which are required to be completed within twelve months of closing), the underlying assets will continue to be held by GMAC IICL subject to the provisions of the reinsurance agreement between GMAC IICL and Maiden Bermuda. However, all investment income produced by these assets will be fully credited to Maiden Bermuda until novation. As a result of the assumption of these liabilities, at November 30, 2010 the underlying assets in support of these collateral arrangements totaled $152.7 million, which are recorded as Funds Withheld on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2010. As of December 31, 2010, no liabilities relating to the IIS Reinsurance Agreement have been novated.

The loss reserves retroceded by GMAC IICL to Maiden Bermuda represented the estimate of the unpaid losses to be paid on all of the reinsurance contracts produced by GMAC IICL through November 30, 2010. Because the entire related infrastructure of GMAC IICL, including the claims procedures and personnel were acquired by us, the methodology for establishing the estimates for losses and loss expense have been consistently applied. While we believe that we have made a reasonable estimate of loss and loss expense reserves, the ultimate loss experience may be higher or lower than the total reserves recorded by the Company. A breakdown of the case and IBNR reserves assumed under the IIS Reinsurance Agreement as of November 30, 2010, by underwriting year is provided in the table below.

     
Underwriting Year*   Case
Reserves
  IBNR
Reserves
  Total
Reserves
     ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)   ($ in Millions)
2000 & Prior   $ 17.8     $ 0.9     $ 18.7  
2001     2.0       0.0       2.0  
2002     1.6       0.0       1.6  
2003     2.8       0.2       3.0  
2004     2.7       0.4       3.1  
2005     3.4       0.5       3.9  
2006     4.3       0.4       4.7  
2007     5.3       1.4       6.7  
2008     7.5       1.5       9.0  
2009     9.1       2.6       11.7  
January 1 to November 30, 2010     12.8       21.6       34.4  
Total   $ 69.3     $ 29.5     $ 98.8  

* Underwriting year comprises all policies written or renewed during the year and all losses relating to those same policies, whenever they may occur.

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These losses are treated as retroactive reinsurance under applicable GAAP. Accordingly, any subsequent change in the estimate of the subject losses since the date of transfer are amortized into the Company’s results of operations based upon the cumulative payment of actual claims in relation to the subject losses transferred. The Company amortized no gains as a reduction of losses incurred for the year ended December 31, 2010. There were no significant movements in the case and IBNR reserves assumed under the IIS Reinsurance Agreement other than immaterial adjustments arising from exchange rate movements during the period November 30 to December 31, 2010.

Pursuant to the IIS Reinsurance Agreement, Maiden Bermuda reinsures all of the existing reinsurance contracts written by GMAC IICL. Future reinsurance contracts will be underwritten by Maiden Bermuda. According to the loss portfolio transfer provisions of the IIS Reinsurance Agreement, in addition to the loss reserves assumed by the Company described above, the Company also assumed unearned premium of approximately $24.3 million as of November 30, 2010. The reinsurance premiums from the IIS Acquisition and underwritten by Maiden Bermuda are included in the Diversified Reinsurance segment and represent 5.3% of the net premiums written for this segment for the year ended December 31, 2010. The Company now assumes one hundred percent (100%) of all premiums and losses for which GMAC IICL is otherwise entitled to or liable in respect of the subject reinsurance contracts.

Change in Reserves

The following tables (“Analysis of Consolidated Net Loss Reserves Development”) show the development of gross and net reserves for unpaid losses and loss expenses for our business for calendar years 2008 through 2010. The tables do not present accident or policy year development data. Each table begins by showing the initial reported year-end gross and net reserves, including IBNR reserves, recorded at the balance sheet date for each of the three years presented. The next section of the table shows the re-estimated amount of the initial reported net reserves for up to three subsequent years, based on experience at the end of each subsequent year. The re-estimated net liabilities reflect additional information, received from cedants or obtained through reviews of industry trends, regarding claims incurred prior to the end of the preceding financial year. A redundancy (or deficiency) arises when the re-estimation of reserves is less (or greater) than its estimation at the preceding year-end. The cumulative redundancies (or deficiencies) reflect cumulative differences between the initial reported net reserves and the currently re-estimated net reserves. Annual changes in the estimates are reflected in the income statement for each year as the liabilities are re-estimated.

The lower section of the table shows the portion of the initial year-end net reserves that was paid (claims paid) as of the end of subsequent years. This section of the table provides an indication of the portion of the re-estimated net liability that is settled and is unlikely to develop in the future.

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Analysis of Consolidated Net Loss Reserves Development

The following table presents additional information regarding the development of gross loss reserves. The table below is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending liability for unpaid losses and loss expenses for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008.

     
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions)
Gross unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses reserves at beginning of period   $ 1,002.7     $ 897.7     $ 38.5  
Less reinsurance recoverable at beginning of period     8.4              
Net loss and loss adjustment expense reserves at beginning of period     994.3       897.7       38.5  
Net incurred losses related to:
                          
Current year     788.0       620.0       265.5  
Prior years     (32.9 )      (11.4 )      (1.8 ) 
       755.1       608.6       263.7  
Net paid losses related to:
                          
Current year     365.3       209.1       143.3  
Prior years     266.0       303.2       16.6  
       631.3       512.3       159.9  
Acquired loss and loss expense reserve     102.0       0.2       755.6  
Effect of foreign exchange movement     0.0       0.1       (0.2 ) 
Net loss and loss adjustment expense reserves at end of period     1,220.1       994.3       897.7  
Reinsurance recoverable at end of period     6.7       8.4        
Gross unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses reserves at end of period   $ 1,226.8     $ 1,002.7     $ 897.7  

Analysis of Gross and Net Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses and Net Re-estimated Liability

Development of Reserve for Loss and Loss Expenses Cumulative Deficiency (Redundancy) Gross Losses

       
  Year Ended December 31,
     2007   2008(1)   2009   2010(2)
     ($ in Millions)
Gross
                                   
As Originally Estimated   $ 38.5     $ 897.7     $ 1,002.7     $ 1,226.8  
Liability Re-estimated as of:
                                   
One Year later   $ 36.7     $ 886.2     $ 963.1           
Two Years later     37.3       869.8                    
Three Years later     37.9                             
Cumulative redundancy   $ (0.6 )    $ (27.9 )      (39.6 )          
Cumulative claims paid as of:
                                   
One Year later   $ 16.6     $ 286.0       266.0           
Two Years later     33.7       402.4                    
Three Years later     34.1                             
Liability Re-estimated as of:
                                   
One Year later     95.4 %      98.7 %      96.0 %          
Two Years later     96.8 %      96.9 %                   
Three Years later     98.5 %                            
Cumulative redundancy on gross reserve     (1.5 )%      (3.1 )%      (4.0 )%          
Gross Loss and Loss Expense Cumulative Paid as a Percentage of Originally Estimated Liability
                                   
One Year later     43.1 %      31.9 %      26.5 %          
Two Years later     87.6 %      44.8 %                   
Three Years later     88.6 %                            

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  Year Ended December 31,
     2007   2008(1)   2009   2010(2)
     ($ in Millions)
Losses Net of Reinsurance
                                   
As Originally Estimated   $ 38.5     $ 897.7     $ 994.3     $ 1,220.1  
Liability Re-estimated as of:
                                   
One Year later   $ 36.7     $ 886.2     $ 961.4           
Two Years later     37.3       869.8                    
Three Years later     37.9                             
Cumulative redundancy   $ (0.6 )    $ (27.9 )    $ (32.9 )          
Cumulative claims paid as of:
                                   
One Year later   $ 16.6     $ 286.0     $ 266.0           
Two Years later     33.7       402.4                    
Three Years later     34.1                             
Liability Re-estimated as of:
                                   
One Year later     95.4 %      98.7 %      96.7 %          
Two Years later     96.8 %      96.9 %                   
Three Years later     98.5 %                            
Cumulative redundancy on net reserve     (1.5 )%      (3.1 )%      (3.3 )%          
Net Loss and Loss Expense Cumulative Paid as a Percentage of Originally Estimated Liability
                                   
One Year later     43.1 %      31.9 %      26.7 %          
Two Years later     87.6 %      44.8 %                   
Three Years later     88.6 %                            

(1) Reserve for losses and losses include the reserves for losses and loss expenses of $755.6 million, from the GMAC Acquisition, which we acquired in October 2008.
(2) Reserve for losses and loss expenses include the reserves for losses and loss expenses of $102.0 million from the IIS Acquisition, which we acquired in November 2010.

For additional information concerning our reserves, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies — Reserve for Losses and Loss Expenses” for further information regarding the specific actuarial models we utilize and the uncertainties in establishing the reserve for losses and loss expenses.

Our Employees

As of March 1, 2011, we had a total of 204 full-time employees who were located in Bermuda, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria and Australia. We may increase our staff over time commensurate with the expansion of operations. We believe that our employee relations are good. No employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements.

Regulatory Matters

General

The reinsurance and regulatory environment, in particular for offshore reinsurance companies, has become subject to increased scrutiny in many jurisdictions, including the United States and various states within the United States. In the past, there have been Congressional and other initiatives in the United States regarding increased supervision and regulation of the insurance industry. For example, in response to the tightening of supply in some insurance and reinsurance markets resulting from, among other things, the World Trade Center tragedy, the United States Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (“TRIA”), the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 (the “TRIA Extension of 2005”) and the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program

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Reauthorization Act of 2007 (the “TRIA Extension of 2007”) were enacted to ensure the availability of insurance coverage for terrorist acts in the United States. This law establishes a federal assistance program through the end of 2014 to help the commercial property and casualty insurance industry cover claims related to future terrorism related losses and regulates the terms of insurance relating to terrorism coverage. TRIA, the TRIA Extension of 2005 and the TRIA Extension of 2007 have had little impact on our business because few of our reinsurance clients are purchasing this coverage. Maiden Specialty is protected by a terrorism treaty that limits our net exposure emanating from the deductible and co-participations of these federal acts. Recent US federal budget proposals have contained provisions dealing with both the taxation of premium cessions to foreign affiliates and a recommendation supporting the termination of TRIA. We do not believe that either of these initiatives will have a significant impact on Maiden. We are in compliance with the recommended reinsurance cession limitation in the tax proposal. Given our focus on a diverse portfolio of regional and specialty clients and occurrence limitations contained within specific reinsurance contracts, we believe that exposure to the termination of TRIA would be limited.

Bermuda Insurance Regulation

As a holding company, Maiden is not subject to Bermuda insurance regulations. The Insurance Act of 1978, as Amended, and Related Regulations of Bermuda (the “Insurance Act”), which regulates the insurance business of Maiden Bermuda, provides that no person shall carry on any insurance business in or from within Bermuda unless registered as an insurer under the Insurance Act by the Bermuda Monetary Authority (the “BMA”), which is responsible for the day-to-day supervision of insurers. Under the Insurance Act, insurance business includes reinsurance business. The registration of an applicant as an insurer is subject to its complying with the terms of its registration and such other conditions as the BMA may impose from time to time.

The Insurance Act imposes solvency and liquidity standards and auditing and reporting requirements on Bermuda insurance companies and grants to the BMA powers to supervise, investigate and intervene in the affairs of insurance companies. Certain significant aspects of the Bermuda insurance regulatory framework are set forth below.

Classification of Insurers.  The Insurance Act distinguishes between insurers carrying on long-term business and insurers carrying on general business. There are six classifications of insurers carrying on general business, with Class 4 insurers subject to the strictest regulation, and Class 3B insurers subject to the next strictest regulation. Maiden Bermuda is registered as a Class 3B insurer in Bermuda and is regulated as such under the Insurance Act.

Cancellation of Insurer’s Registration.  An insurer’s registration may be canceled by the BMA on certain grounds specified in the Insurance Act, including failure of the insurer to comply with its obligations under the Insurance Act or if, in the opinion of the BMA, the insurer has not been carrying on business in accordance with sound insurance principles. We believe we are in compliance with applicable regulations under the Insurance Act.

Principal Representative.  An insurer is required to maintain a principal office in Bermuda and to appoint and maintain a principal representative in Bermuda. It is the duty of the principal representative, upon reaching the view that there is a likelihood of the insurer for which the principal representative acts becoming insolvent or that a reportable “event” has, to the principal representative’s knowledge, occurred or is believed to have occurred, to immediately notify the BMA and to make a report in writing to the BMA within 14 days of the prior notification setting out all the particulars of the case that are available to the principal representative.

Approved Independent Auditor.  A Class 3B insurer must appoint an independent auditor who annually audits and reports on the insurer’s financial statements prepared under generally accepted accounting principles or international financial reporting standards (“GAAP financial statements”) and statutory financial statements and the statutory financial return of the insurer, all of which, in the case of Maiden Bermuda, are required to be filed annually with the BMA. The independent auditor must be approved by the BMA.

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Approved Loss Reserve Specialist.  As a registered Class 3B insurer, Maiden Bermuda is required to submit an opinion of its approved loss reserve specialist with its statutory financial return in respect of its loss and loss expense provisions. The loss reserve specialist, who will normally be a qualified casualty actuary, must be approved by the BMA.

Annual Financial Statements, Annual Statutory Financial Return and Annual Capital and Solvency Return.  Maiden Bermuda must prepare annual statutory financial statements as prescribed in the Insurance Act with respect to its general business. The statutory financial statements are distinct from the annual GAAP basis financial statements referred to below. Maiden Bermuda is also required to prepare and file with the BMA statutory financial returns with respect to its general business. The statutory financial return for a Class 3B insurer includes, among other things, a report of the approved independent auditor on the statutory financial statement of such insurer, solvency certificates, the statutory financial statements for the general business, the opinion of the loss reserve specialist and a schedule of reinsurance ceded. Maiden Bermuda is also required to file audited GAAP basis annual financial statements, which must be available to the public. In addition, Maiden Bermuda is required to file a capital and solvency return, which shall include the company’s risk based capital model, a schedule of fixed income investments by rating categories, a schedule of net reserves for losses and loss expense provisions by line of business, a schedule of premiums written by line of business, a schedule of risk management, and a schedule of fixed income securities.

Minimum Solvency Margin, Enhanced Capital Requirement and Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions.  Under the Insurance Act, Maiden Bermuda must ensure that the value of its general business assets exceeds the amount of its general business liabilities by an amount greater than the prescribed minimum solvency margin and enhanced capital requirement. As a Class 3B insurer, Maiden Bermuda:

is required to maintain a minimum solvency margin equal to the greatest of (A) $1 million, (B) 20% of net premiums when net premiums are not projected to exceed $6 million, or $120,000 plus 15% of net premiums in excess of $6 million otherwise, and (C) 15% of net discounted aggregate losses and loss expense provisions and other insurance reserves;
is required to maintain available statutory capital and surplus to an amount that is equal to or exceeds the target capital levels based on enhanced capital requirements calculated using the BSCR model. The BSCR model is a risk based capital model introduced by the BMA that measures risk and determines enhanced capital requirements and a target capital level (defined as 120% of the enhanced capital requirement) based on Maiden Bermuda’s statutory financial statements.
is prohibited from declaring or paying any dividends during any financial year if it is in breach of its enhanced capital requirement, solvency margin or minimum liquidity ratio or if the declaration or payment of such dividends would cause such a breach. If it has failed to meet its minimum solvency margin or minimum liquidity ratio on the last day of any financial year, Maiden Bermuda will be prohibited, without the approval of the BMA, from declaring or paying any dividends during the next financial year;
is prohibited from declaring or paying in any financial year dividends of more than 25% of its total statutory capital and surplus (as shown on its previous financial year’s statutory balance sheet) unless it files (at least 7 days before payment of such dividends) with the BMA an affidavit stating that it will continue to meet the required margins;
is prohibited, without the approval of the BMA, from reducing by 15% or more its total statutory capital as set out in its previous year’s financial statements and any application for such approval must include an affidavit stating that it will continue to meet the required margins;
is required, at any time it fails to meet its enhanced capital requirements or solvency margins, to file with the BMA a written report containing certain information;

Minimum Liquidity Ratio.  The Insurance Act provides a minimum liquidity ratio for general business insurers such as Maiden Bermuda. An insurer engaged in general business is required to maintain the value of its relevant assets at not less than 75% of the amount of its relevant liabilities. Relevant assets include cash and time deposits, quoted investments, unquoted bonds and debentures, first liens on real estate, investment

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income due and accrued, accounts and premiums receivable and reinsurance balances receivable. The relevant liabilities are total general business insurance reserves and total other liabilities less deferred income tax and sundry liabilities (by interpretation, those not specifically defined).

Supervision, Investigation and Intervention.  The BMA may appoint an inspector with extensive powers to investigate the affairs of an insurer if the BMA believes that an investigation is required in the interest of the insurer’s policyholders or persons who may become policyholders. In order to verify or supplement information otherwise provided to the BMA, the BMA may direct an insurer to produce documents or information relating to matters connected with the insurer’s business.

If it appears to the BMA that there is a risk of the insurer becoming insolvent, or that it is in breach of the Insurance Act or any conditions imposed upon its registration, the BMA may, among other things, direct the insurer (1) not to take on any new insurance business, (2) not to vary any insurance contract if the effect would be to increase the insurer’s liabilities, (3) not to make certain investments, (4) to realize certain investments, (5) to maintain in, or transfer to the custody of, a specified bank, certain assets, (6) not to declare or pay any dividends or other distributions or to restrict the making of such payments, (7) to limit its premium income, (8) not to enter into specified transactions with any specified person or persons of a specified class, (9) to provide such written particulars relating to the financial circumstances of the insurer as the BMA thinks fit, (10) to obtain the opinion of a loss reserve specialist and submit it to the BMA and/or (11) to remove a controller or officer.

Shareholder Controllers.  Any person who, directly or indirectly, becomes a holder of at least 10%, 20%, 33% or 50% of the common shares of Maiden must notify the BMA in writing within 45 days of becoming such a holder. The BMA may, by written notice, object to such a person if it appears to the BMA that the person is not fit and proper to be such a holder. The BMA may require the holder to reduce their holding of common shares in Maiden and direct, among other things, that voting rights attaching to the common shares shall not be exercisable. A person that does not comply with such a notice or direction from the BMA will be guilty of an offense.

For so long as Maiden has as a subsidiary an insurer registered under the Insurance Act, the BMA may at any time, by written notice, object to a person holding 10% or more of its common shares if it appears to the BMA that the person is not or is no longer fit and proper to be such a holder. In such a case, the BMA may require the shareholder to reduce its holding of common shares in Maiden and direct, among other things, that such shareholder’s voting rights attaching to the common shares shall not be exercisable. A person who does not comply with such a notice or direction from the BMA will be guilty of an offense.

Code of Conduct.  Maiden Bermuda will be subject to the Insurance Code of Conduct (the “Code”), which establishes duties and standards that must be complied with by all insurers registered under the Insurance Act, including the procedures and sound principles to be observed by such insurers. The Code is expected to become effective on 30 June 2011. Failure to comply with the requirements under the Code will be a factor taken into account by the BMA in determining whether an insurer is conducting its business in a sound and prudent manner as prescribed by the Insurance Act. Such failure to comply with the requirements of the Code could result in the Authority exercising its powers of intervention (see Supervision, Intervention and Investigation above) and will be a factor in calculating the operational risk charge applicable in accordance with that insurer’s BSCR model.

Group Supervision.  The BMA may designate Maiden Bermuda as the designated insurer for the purposes of group supervision of our group of companies, and if it does so designate Maiden Bermuda, will act as group supervisor of our group. As group supervisor, the BMA will gather relevant and essential information on and assess the financial situation of the group, and coordinate the dissemination of such information to other relevant competent authorities for the purposes of assisting in their regulatory functions and the enforcement of regulatory action against the group or any of its members. The BMA may establish rules applicable to group supervision that will regulate group solvency, risk concentration and intra-group transactions, and the systems of governance and risk management applicable to the group. Maiden is not an insurer and is not regulated in Bermuda as such. However, pursuant to its functions as group supervisor, the Authority may include any member of the group within its group supervision, including Maiden.

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Certain Bermuda Law Considerations

Maiden and Maiden Bermuda have been designated as non-resident for exchange control purposes by the BMA and are required to obtain the permission of the BMA for the issue and transfer of all of their shares. The BMA has given its consent for:

the issue and transfer of Maiden’s shares, up to the amount of its authorized capital from time to time, to and among persons that are non-residents of Bermuda for exchange control purposes; and
the issue and transfer of up to 20% of Maiden’s shares in issue from time to time to and among persons resident in Bermuda for exchange control purposes.

Transfers and issues of Maiden’s common shares to any resident in Bermuda for exchange control purposes may require specific prior approval under the Exchange Control Act 1972. Maiden Bermuda’s common shares cannot be issued or transferred without the consent of the BMA. Because we are designated as non-resident for Bermuda exchange control purposes, we are allowed to engage in transactions, and to pay dividends to Bermuda non-residents who are holders of our common shares, in currencies other than the Bermuda Dollar.

In accordance with Bermuda law, share certificates are issued only in the names of corporations or individuals. In the case of an applicant acting in a special capacity (for example, as an executor or trustee), certificates may, at the request of the applicant, record the capacity in which the applicant is acting. Notwithstanding the recording of any such special capacity, we are not bound to investigate or incur any responsibility in respect of the proper administration of any such estate or trust. We will take no notice of any trust applicable to any of our common shares whether or not we have notice of such trust.

Maiden and Maiden Bermuda are incorporated in Bermuda as “exempted companies.” As a result, they are exempt from Bermuda laws restricting the percentage of share capital that may be held by non-Bermudians, but they may not participate in certain business transactions, including (1) the acquisition or holding of land in Bermuda (except that required for their business and held by way of lease or tenancy for terms of not more than 50 years) without the express authorization of the Bermuda legislature, (2) the taking of mortgages on land in Bermuda to secure an amount in excess of $50,000 without the consent of the Minister of Finance, (3) the acquisition of any bonds or debentures secured by any land in Bermuda, other than certain types of Bermuda government securities or (4) the carrying on of business of any kind in Bermuda, except in furtherance of their business carried on outside Bermuda or under license granted by the Minister of Finance. While an insurer is permitted to reinsure risks undertaken by any company incorporated in Bermuda and permitted to engage in the insurance and reinsurance business, generally it is not permitted without a special license granted by the Minister of Finance to insure Bermuda domestic risks or risks of persons of, in or based in Bermuda.

Maiden and Maiden Bermuda also need to comply with the provisions of The Bermuda Companies Act 1981, as amended (the “Companies Act”) regulating the payment of dividends and making distributions from contributed surplus. A company shall not declare or pay a dividend, or make a distribution out of contributed surplus, if there are reasonable grounds for believing that: (a) the company is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or (b) the realizable value of the company’s assets would thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities and its issued share capital and share premium accounts.

Under Bermuda law, only persons who are Bermudians, spouses of Bermudians, holders of a permanent resident’s certificate or holders of a working resident’s certificate (“exempted persons”) may engage in gainful occupation in Bermuda without an appropriate governmental work permit. Our success may depend in part upon the continued services of key employees in Bermuda. Certain of our current key employees are not exempted persons and, as such, require specific approval to work for us in Bermuda. A work permit may be granted or extended upon showing that, after proper public advertisement, no exempted person is available who meets the minimum standards reasonably required by the employer. The Bermuda government has a policy that places a six-year term limit on individuals with work permits, subject to certain exemptions for key employees.

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United States

Our U.S. Subsidiaries

Maiden US is our lead U.S. insurer, authorized as a reinsurer in 51 jurisdictions and licensed as a direct insurer in 45 states. Maiden Specialty is licensed for direct business in two states and is an authorized excess and surplus lines carrier in 49 jurisdictions (Maiden Specialty primarily writes insurance on a surplus lines basis). The extent of regulation varies but generally has its source in statutes that delegate regulatory, supervisory and administrative authority to a department of insurance in each state and, in the case of Maiden US and Maiden Specialty, to federal regulation ensuring consistent state regulation of insurance producers and agents. Among other things, state insurance departments regulate insurer solvency standards, insurer and agent licensing, authorized investments, premium rates, restrictions on the size of risks that may be insured under a single policy, loss and expense reserves and provisions for unearned premiums, and deposits of securities for the benefit of policyholders. The states’ regulatory schemes also extend to policy form approval and market conduct regulation. In addition, some states have enacted variations of competitive rate making laws, which allow insurers to set premium rates for certain classes of insurance without obtaining the prior approval of the state insurance department. Maiden US and Maiden Specialty are required to file detailed financial statements and other reports with the departments of insurance in all states in which they are licensed to transact business. These financial statements are subject to periodic examination by the department of insurance in each state in which they are filed. Entry by Maiden US into certain material transactions with AmTrust or its affiliates requires prior notice to and approval of the Missouri DOI.

State Insurance Department Examinations

Our U.S. insurance subsidiaries are subject to the supervision and regulation of the state in which they are domiciled. As part of their regulatory oversight process, state insurance departments conduct periodic detailed examinations of the financial reporting of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years. Examinations are generally carried out in cooperation with the insurance departments of other states under guidelines promulgated by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”).

Statutory Accounting Principles

Statutory accounting principles, or SAP, are a basis of accounting developed to assist insurance regulators in monitoring and regulating the solvency of insurance companies. SAP is primarily concerned with measuring an insurer’s surplus to policyholders. Accordingly, statutory accounting focuses on valuing assets and liabilities of insurers at financial reporting dates in accordance with appropriate insurance law and regulatory provisions applicable in each insurer’s domiciliary state.

GAAP is concerned with a company’s solvency, but is also concerned with other financial measurements, principally income and cash flows. Accordingly, GAAP gives more consideration to appropriate matching of revenue and expenses and accounting for management’s stewardship of assets than does SAP. As a direct result, different assets and liabilities and different amounts of assets and liabilities will be reflected in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP as compared to SAP.

Statutory accounting practices established by the NAIC and adopted in part by Missouri will determine, among other things, the amount of statutory surplus and statutory net income of Maiden US, and thus determine, in part, the amount of funds that are available to pay dividends to Maiden NA.

Holding Company Regulation

Maiden NA, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty are subject to regulation under the insurance holding company laws of their states of domicile. The insurance holding company laws and regulations vary from state to state, but generally require licensed insurers that are subsidiaries of insurance holding companies to register and file with state regulatory authorities certain reports including information concerning their capital structure, ownership, financial condition and general business operations. All transactions involving the insurers in a holding company system and their affiliates must be fair and reasonable and, if material, require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by the state insurance department. Further, state insurance holding company laws typically place limitations on the amounts of dividends or other distributions payable by insurers. Payment of ordinary dividends by Maiden US requires prior approval of the Director of the

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Missouri Department of Insurance, Financial Institutions & Professional Registration (the “Missouri DOI”) unless dividends will be paid out of “earned surplus.” “Earned surplus” is an amount equal to the unassigned funds of an insurer as set forth in the most recent annual statement of the insurer including all or part of the surplus arising from unrealized capital gains or revaluation of assets. Extraordinary dividends generally require 30 days prior notice to and non-disapproval of the Missouri DOI before being paid. An extraordinary dividend includes any dividend whose fair market value together with that of other dividends or distributions made within the preceding 12 months exceeds the greater of: (1) 10% of the insurer’s surplus as regards policyholders as of December 31 of the prior year, or (2) the net income of the insurer, not including realized capital gains, for the 12-month period ending December 31 of the prior year, but does not include pro rata distributions of any class of the insurer’s own securities.

State insurance holding company laws also require prior notice and state insurance department approval of changes in control of an insurer or its holding company. “Control” is generally defined as the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the company, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract (except a commercial contract for goods or non-management services) or otherwise. Maiden US is domiciled in Missouri where any beneficial owner of 10% or more of the outstanding voting securities of an insurance company or its holding company is presumed to have acquired control, unless this presumption is rebutted. Maiden Specialty is domiciled in North Carolina, which determines control in the same manner. Therefore, an investor who intends to acquire beneficial ownership of 10% or more of our outstanding voting securities may need to comply with these laws and would be required to file notices and reports with the Missouri DOI and receive approval from the Missouri DOI or rebut the presumption of control before such acquisition. An investor acquiring beneficial ownership would need to obtain approval as to the change of control of Maiden Specialty from the North Carolina Department of Insurance or rebut the presumption of control.

Risk-Based Capital  

U.S. insurers are also subject to risk-based capital (or RBC) guidelines that provide a method to measure the total adjusted capital (statutory capital and surplus plus other adjustments) of insurance companies taking into account the risk characteristics of a company’s investments and products. The RBC formulas establish capital requirements for four categories of risk: asset risk, insurance risk, interest rate risk and business risk. For each category, the capital requirement is determined by applying factors to asset, premium and reserve items, with higher factors applied to items with greater underlying risk and lower factors for less risky items. Insurers that have less statutory capital than the RBC calculation requires are considered to have inadequate capital and are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending upon the level of capital inadequacy. The RBC formulas have not been designed to differentiate among adequately capitalized companies that operate with higher levels of capital. Therefore, it is inappropriate and ineffective to use the formulas to rate or to rank such companies. Maiden US has satisfied the RBC formula and has exceeded all recognized industry solvency standards. As of December 31, 2010, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty each had adjusted capital in excess of amounts requiring company or regulatory action.

Reinsurance

The ability of a primary insurer to take credit for the reinsurance purchased from reinsurance companies is a significant component of reinsurance regulation. Typically, a primary insurer will only enter into a reinsurance agreement if it can obtain credit to its reserves on its statutory financial statements for the reinsurance ceded to the reinsurer. With respect to U.S. domiciled reinsurers that reinsure U.S. insurers, credit is usually granted when the reinsurer is licensed or accredited in a state where the primary insurer is domiciled or, in some instances, in a state in which the primary insurer is licensed. States also generally permit primary insurers to take credit for reinsurance if the reinsurer is (i) domiciled in a state with a credit for reinsurance law that is substantially similar to the standards in the primary insurer’s state of domicile, and (ii) meets certain financial requirements. Credit for reinsurance purchased from a reinsurer that does not meet the foregoing conditions is generally allowed to the extent that such reinsurer secures its obligations with qualified collateral. Some states impose requirements that make it difficult to become licensed or accredited as a reinsurer.

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NAIC Ratios  

The NAIC Insurance Regulatory Information System, or IRIS, was developed to help state regulators identify companies that may require special attention. IRIS is comprised of statistical and analytical phases consisting of key financial ratios whereby financial examiners review annual statutory basis statements and financial ratios. Each ratio has an established “usual range” of results and assists state insurance departments in executing their statutory mandate to oversee the financial condition of insurance companies. A ratio result falling outside the usual range of IRIS ratios is not considered a failing result; rather unusual values are viewed as part of the regulatory early monitoring system. Furthermore, in some years, it may not be unusual for financially sound companies to have several ratios with results outside the usual ranges. An insurance company may fall out of the usual range for one or more ratios because of specific transactions that are in themselves immaterial. Generally, an insurance company will become subject to regulatory scrutiny and may be subject to regulatory action if it falls outside the usual ranges of four or more of the ratios. As of December 31, 2010, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty did not have an IRIS ratio range warranting any regulatory action.

State Legislative and Regulatory Changes.

From time to time, various regulatory and legislative changes are proposed in the insurance industry. Among the proposals that have in the past been or are at present being considered are proposals in various state legislatures (some of which proposals have been enacted) to conform portions of their insurance laws and regulations to various model acts adopted by the NAIC. We are unable to predict whether any of these laws and regulations will be adopted, the form in which any such laws and regulations would be adopted or the effect, if any, these developments would have on our operations and financial condition.

In December 2008, the NAIC formally adopted the NAIC Reinsurance Regulatory Modernization Framework proposal (the “Framework”) which provides for the formation of a new office to be called the NAIC Reinsurance Supervision Review Department (“RSRD”). The purpose of the RSRD will be to evaluate and approve systems of reinsurance regulation in place both in U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions to determine whether reinsurers domiciled in those jurisdictions would be permitted to participate in the Framework. Under the Framework, credit for reinsurance determinations would be governed by the state that is the primary U.S. regulator of the reinsurer rather than by the domestic regulators of all of the ceding insurers, as is currently the case. The level of required collateral for a participating reinsurer would depend upon the reinsurer’s security rating and would range from 0% to 100% of gross assumed liabilities. It is likely that U.S. federal enabling legislation will be necessary to implement the Framework. If the Framework ultimately leads to a reduction of the collateral requirements for non-U.S. insurers, such changes could be beneficial to Maiden US by permitting Maiden US to post less collateral to secure its reinsurance obligations to its U.S. ceding companies. At this time, we are unable to determine whether any changes in the U.S. reinsurance regulatory framework will be implemented based on the NAIC proposal and the effect, if any, such changes would have on our operations or financial condition.

Our insurance subsidiaries are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations applicable to insurance or reinsurance companies, both in the jurisdictions in which they are organized and where they sell their insurance and reinsurance products. The insurance and regulatory environment, in particular for offshore insurance and reinsurance companies, has become subject to increased scrutiny in many jurisdictions, including the United States, various states within the United States and the European Union. In the past, there have been Congressional and other initiatives in the United States regarding increased supervision and regulation of the insurance industry. It is not possible to predict the future impact of changes in laws and regulations on our operations. The cost of complying with any new legal requirements affecting our subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, our subsidiaries may not always be able to obtain or maintain necessary licenses, permits, authorizations or accreditations. They also may not be able to fully comply with, or to obtain appropriate exemptions from, the laws and regulations applicable to them. Any failure to comply with applicable law or to obtain appropriate exemptions could result in restrictions on either the ability of the company in question, as well as potentially its affiliates, to do business in one or more of the jurisdictions in which they operate or on brokers on which we rely to produce business for us. In addition, any such failure to comply with applicable laws or to obtain appropriate exemptions could result in the imposition of fines or other sanctions. Any of

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these sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our business. To date, no material fine, penalty or restriction has been imposed on us for failure to comply with any insurance law or regulation.

Federal

Although the U.S. federal government typically does not directly regulate the business of insurance and reinsurance, federal initiatives often have an impact on the insurance industry. From time to time, various federal regulatory and legislative changes have been proposed in the insurance and reinsurance industry. Among the proposals that have in the past been or are at present being considered are the possible introduction of federal regulation in addition to, or in lieu of, the current system of state regulation of insurers. The extreme turmoil in the financial markets has increased the likelihood of changes in the way the financial services industry is regulated. While we cannot predict the exact nature, timing or scope of possible governmental initiatives, there may be increased regulatory intervention in our industry in the future. In recent years, the U.S. Federal government has increased its scrutiny of the insurance regulatory framework and in July 2010 enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which is discussed below. Additionally, the 2011 budget proposed by President Obama includes a provision that would change the tax treatment for certain reinsurance premiums paid to affiliated foreign insurance companies. We are unable to predict what laws and regulations will be proposed or adopted, the form in which any such laws and regulations would be adopted, or the effect, if any, these developments would have on our operations and financial condition.

In 2002, former President George W. Bush signed TRIA into law. TRIA provides for the federal government to share with the insurance industry the risk of loss arising from future acts of terrorism. Participation in the program for U.S. commercial property and casualty insurers is mandatory. Each participating insurance company must pay covered losses equal to a deductible based on a percentage of direct earned premiums for specified commercial insurance lines from the previous calendar year. Prior to 2008, the federal backstop covered 85% of losses in excess of the company deductible subject to an annual cap of $100 billion. While TRIA appears to provide the property and casualty sector with an increased ability to withstand the effect of potential terrorist events, any company’s results of operations or equity could nevertheless be materially adversely impacted, in light of the unpredictability of the nature, severity or frequency of such potential events. TRIA was originally scheduled to expire at the end of 2005, but President Bush signed the TRIA Extension of 2005 into law on December 22, 2005, which extended TRIA, with some amendments, through December 31, 2007. TRIA was again extended by President Bush on December 26, 2007 when he signed into law the TRIA Extension of 2007. The TRIA Extension of 2007 reauthorized TRIA through December 31, 2014. The TRIA Extension of 2007 is substantially similar to the original TRIA and the TRIA Extension of 2005. One notable difference was the revised definition of an “act of terrorism.” Prior to the TRIA Extension of 2007, TRIA and the TRIA Extension of 2005 applied only to acts of terrorism carried out on behalf of foreign persons or interests. Under the TRIA Extension of 2007, the definition of “acts of terrorism” has been expanded to include “domestic terrorism,” which could impact insurance coverage and have an adverse effect on our clients, the industry and us. There is also no assurance that TRIA will be extended beyond 2014 on either a temporary or permanent basis and its expiration could have an adverse effect on our clients, the industry or us. TRIA does not apply to reinsurers directly but does apply to excess and surplus lines insurers, like Maiden Specialty.

Proposals to repeal the McCarran-Ferguson Act antitrust exemption for the insurance industry periodically are made, including in recent years, but have been unsuccessful. The antitrust exemption allows insurers to compile and share loss data, develop standard policy forms and manuals and predict future loss costs with greater reliability, among other things. The ability of the industry, under the exemption permitted in the McCarran-Ferguson Act, to collect loss cost data and build a credible database as a means of predicting future loss costs is an important part of cost-based pricing. If the ability to collect this data was removed in the future, the predictability of future loss costs and the reliability of pricing could be undermined.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd Frank”) became law in July 2010. Dodd-Frank creates a new source of regulation and supervision of the insurance industry at the federal level. Dodd-Frank’s requirements include streamlining the state-based regulation of reinsurance and non-admitted insurance (property or casualty insurance placed from insurers that are eligible to accept

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insurance, but are not licensed to write insurance in a particular state). Dodd-Frank also establishes a new Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury with powers over all lines of insurance except health insurance, certain long-term care insurance and crop insurance, in order to, among other things, monitor aspects of the insurance industry, identify issues in the regulation of insurers that could contribute to a systemic crises in the insurance industry or the overall financial system, coordinate federal policy on international insurance matters and preempt state insurance measures under certain circumstances. Congress ultimately limited the scope of the FIO and recognized that it should not be a duplicate federal insurance regulator. The office is restricted primarily to monitoring the industry and advising Congress and federal agencies on insurance issues. However, federal regulators will have vast discretion over how this oversight is executed. Dodd-Frank calls for numerous studies and contemplates further regulation, the timing and impact of which is uncertain. Any additional legislation or regulatory requirements imposed in connection with Dodd-Frank or other regulatory reform may have an adverse effect on the operation of the Company and its subsidiaries.

Taxation of the Company and its Subsidiaries

The following summary of the taxation of Maiden Holdings, Maiden US, Maiden Bermuda and the companies formed and/or acquired in the IIS Acquisition, including Maiden Global, Maiden VS and Maiden LF, is based upon current law. Legislative, judicial or administrative changes may be forthcoming that could affect this summary. Certain subsidiaries of ours are subject to taxation related to operations in Australia, Germany, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The discussion below covers the principal locations for which the Company or its subsidiaries are subject to taxation.

Bermuda

Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda have each received from the Minister of Finance an assurance under The Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act, 1966 of Bermuda, to the effect that in the event that there is any legislation enacted in Bermuda imposing tax computed on profits or income, or computed on any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, then the imposition of any such tax shall not be applicable to Maiden Holdings or Maiden Bermuda or to any of their operations or the shares, debentures or other obligations of Maiden Holdings or Maiden Bermuda until 2016. These assurances are subject to the proviso that they are not construed to prevent the application of any tax or duty to such persons as are ordinarily resident in Bermuda (Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda are not currently so designated) or to prevent the application of any tax payable in accordance with the provisions of The Land Tax Act, 1967 of Bermuda or otherwise payable in relation to the property leased to Maiden.

Germany

Maiden Germany GmbH (“Maiden Germany”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Maiden Global and is the sole shareholder of Maiden VS, is subject to German corporate income tax at a rate of 15% plus solidarity surcharge of 5% thereon (in aggregate 15.825%) and German trade tax at a rate of 16.10%. Maiden Germany is not engaged in general commerce. However, Maiden Germany is the sole shareholder of Maiden VS and, as such, is generally entitled to dividends. Maiden VS is subject to German corporate income tax at a rate of 15% plus solidarity surcharge of 5% thereon (in aggregate 15.825%) and German trade tax at a rate of 13.65%. Maiden VS is engaged in general commerce as an insurance company. The taxable income of a German corporate entity is in principle, absent a Treaty exemption, the total amount of worldwide income (current profits, capital gains) after deduction of business expenses. Income from dividend and capital gains arising upon the sale of shares in corporate entities are, in principle, fully tax exempt. However, a lump sum of 5% of the dividend / capital gains is added back to the taxable income, representing non-deductible business expenses. It is anticipated that a tax unity for corporate income and trade tax purposes will be formed between Maiden Germany and Maiden VS in the course of 2011. The tax unity would come into effect retroactively as from January 1, 2011, resulting in a pooling of profits and losses at the level of Maiden Germany not only for financial accounting but also for tax purposes.

Dividends paid by German corporate entities to foreign shareholders are subject to German withholding tax at a rate of 26.375%, unless the respective shareholder obtained a withholding tax exemption or reduction certificate from the Federal Central Tax Office by reference to a Double Tax Treaty or by reference to the EC Parent/Subsidiary Directive. There is no German withholding tax on (non-profit related) interest payments to

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corporate shareholders. Other than the German Maiden Companies, we believe that Maiden has operated and will continue to operate its business in a manner that will not cause them to be treated as engaged in a trade or business within Germany. A trade or business in Germany requires a permanent establishment either in the form of a fixed place of business or by having a permanent representative on German ground.

Germany imposes an excise tax on car insurance premiums paid to insurers which reside in Germany. The tax rate generally applicable is 19% of the insurance premium. If the insurer resides in a member state of the European Community or in a third country, the excise tax on insurance premiums will in principle only be levied if the policy-holder is a resident of Germany or if the insured property is located in Germany. There is generally no excise tax on reinsurance premiums.

Sweden

Maiden LF is subject to Swedish taxation on net profits irrespective of whether the profits are generated through business in general or capital. To the extent that net profits are generated, profits are taxed at a rate of 26.3%. Foreign entities are subject to tax in Sweden only to the extent they have a permanent establishment in Sweden or if the income is related to certain types of assets, typically real estate, or partnership income.

A foreign entity is deemed to have a permanent establishment in Sweden under the rules very similar to those applied by OECD. This means that if Maiden Bermuda has taken steps to avoid a permanent establishment, it should not be subject to Swedish income tax except in case it receives dividend from a Swedish company in which case the withholding tax is levied with 30%. There is no withholding tax on interest paid by a Swedish borrower to a foreign lender. A foreign recipient of royalty paid by a Swedish licensor is however taxable in Sweden as the royalty is deemed to constitute income from a permanent establishment in Sweden.

United Kingdom

Maiden Global Holdings is tax resident in the United Kingdom and is subject to corporation tax in the U.K. on its trading and other taxable profits at the rate of 27%. Non-U.K. resident corporations will only be within the charge to corporation tax in the U.K. if they carry on a trade in the U.K. through a permanent establishment in the U.K. Non-U.K. resident corporations which are not entitled to treaty relief may be subject to U.K. income tax on U.K. source trading profits at the rate of 20% if they carry on a trade in the U.K. Reinsurance business developed by Maiden Global Holdings is underwritten by Maiden Bermuda in Bermuda. Other than in respect of Maiden Global Holdings, we believe that we have operated and will continue to operate our business in a manner that will not cause us to be treated as engaged in a trade within the U.K. Dividends paid by Maiden Global Holdings will not be subject to deduction or withholding for or on account of U.K. tax. Interest paid by Maiden Global Holdings will be subject to deduction of U.K. income tax at the rate of 20%, subject to the availability of treaty relief.

United States

Maiden NA and its subsidiaries, including Maiden US and Maiden Specialty (collectively, the Maiden US Companies), transact business in and are subject to taxation in the United States. Other than the Maiden US Companies, we believe that we have operated and will continue to operate our business in a manner that will not cause us to be treated as engaged in a trade or business within the United States. On this basis, other than the Maiden US Companies, we do not expect to be required to pay US corporate income taxes (other than withholding taxes as described below). However, because there is considerable uncertainty as to the activities that constitute a trade or business in the United States, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service will not contend successfully that the Company or its non-U.S. subsidiaries are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. The maximum federal tax rate is currently 35% for a corporation’s income that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. In addition, U.S. branches of foreign corporations may be subject to the branch profits tax, which imposes a tax on U.S. branch after-tax earnings that are deemed repatriated out of the United States, for a potential maximum effective federal tax rate of approximately 54% on the net income connected with a U.S. trade or business.

Foreign corporations not engaged in a trade or business in the United States are subject to U.S. income tax, effected through withholding by the payer, on certain fixed or determinable annual or periodic gains, profits and income derived from sources within the United States as enumerated in Section 881(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, such as dividends and interest on certain investments.

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The United States also imposes an excise tax on insurance and reinsurance premiums paid to foreign insurers or reinsurers with respect to risks located in the United States. The rate of tax applicable to reinsurance premiums paid to Maiden Bermuda is 1% of gross premiums.

Where You Can Find More Information

We maintain our principal website at www.maiden.bm. The information on our websites is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We make available, free of charge through our principal website, our financial information, including the information contained in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the SEC. We also make available, free of charge through our principal website, our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating & Corporate Governance Committee Charter, and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. Such information is also available in print for any shareholder who sends a request to Maiden Holdings, Ltd., Schroders House, 131 Front Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda, Attention: Secretary. Reports and other information we file with the SEC may also be viewed at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or viewed or obtained at the SEC Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the SEC Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 800-SEC-0330.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Introduction

Current and potential investors in the Company should be aware that, as with any publicly traded company, investing in our securities carries risk. Managing risk effectively is critical to our success, and our organization is built around intelligent risk assumptions and prudent risk management. We have identified what we believe reflect key significant risks to the organization, and in turn the shareholders, which are outlined below. Any of the risks described below could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. In addition to these enumerated risks, we face numerous other strategic and operational risks that could in the aggregate lead to shortfalls to our long-term goals or add to short-term volatility in our earnings. The following review of important risk factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with other cautionary statements that are included herein or elsewhere. The words or phrases believe, anticipate, estimate, project, plan, expect, intend, hope, forecast, evaluate, will likely result or will continue or words or phrases of similar import generally involve forward-looking statements. As used in these Risk Factors, the terms “we”, “our” or “us” may, depending upon the context, refer to the Company, to one or more of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries or to all of them taken as a whole.

Business

There is limited historical information available for investors to evaluate our performance.

We began underwriting reinsurance transactions in July 2007. As a result, there is limited historical information available to help investors evaluate our performance. In addition, in light of our limited operating history and a series of significant transactions, including the GMAC Acquisition in November 2008, entering into the ACAC Quota Share and the IIS Acquisition in 2010, our historical financial statements are not necessarily meaningful for evaluating the potential of our future operations. Because our underwriting and investment strategies differ from other participants in the property and casualty reinsurance and insurance markets, you may not be able to compare our business’s performance or prospects to other property and casualty reinsurers.

Ongoing economic uncertainty could materially and adversely affect our business, our liquidity and financial condition.

Global economies and financial markets have experienced significant weakness since 2008, although the most extreme of these circumstances have abated and economic conditions and markets have shown positive, albeit tentative progress since the first quarter of 2009. While near-term economic prospects have improved, unemployment continues at elevated levels and many sovereign, U.S. federal and state governments continued to experience significant structural fiscal deficits, creating uncertainty as to levels of taxation, inflation and other economic fundamentals that may impact future growth prospects. Continuation of these conditions may potentially affect (among other aspects of our business) the demand for and claims made under our products, the ability of customers, counterparties and others to establish or maintain their relationships with us, our ability to access and efficiently use internal and external capital resources and our investment performance. In the event that these conditions persist and result in a prolonged period of economic uncertainty, our results of operations, our financial condition and/or liquidity, and competitor landscape could be materially and adversely affected.

If opportunities for writing reinsurance and insurance through Maiden US do not materialize as we expect, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We believe that there will be opportunities to renew and write new reinsurance and insurance through Maiden US. However, we cannot assure you that Maiden US will retain its customers or write new business as we expect. Market conditions are presently very competitive, have been for some time, and such conditions are expected to persist in 2011. Other companies might offer reinsurance and insurance products on more competitive terms than we can provide. Under these circumstances, we might not be able to expand our specialty property/casualty reinsurance business and have a material adverse effect on our ability to fully implement our business strategy, as well as on our financial condition and results of operations.

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We may not be able to manage our growth effectively.

We expect our business to grow in the future as we continue our relationships with existing customers while seeking opportunities to reinsure other insurance companies operating in similar niches. We do not have specific targets or time frames for growth. Expansion of our business in the U.S. and internationally could require additional capital, systems development and skilled personnel. We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet our capital needs, expand our systems effectively, allocate our human resources optimally, identify and hire qualified employees or incorporate effectively the components of any businesses we may acquire. The failure to manage our growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our actual (re)insured losses may be greater than our loss reserves, which would negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

We expect that our success will depend upon our ability to assess accurately the risks associated with the businesses that we will reinsure. Significant periods of time often elapse between the occurrence of an insured loss, the reporting of the loss to an insurer and the reporting of the loss by the insurer to its reinsurer. After we begin to write reinsurance business and to recognize liabilities for unpaid losses, we will establish loss reserves as balance sheet liabilities. These reserves will represent estimates of amounts needed to pay reported losses and unreported losses and the related loss adjustment expense. Loss reserves are only an estimate of what an insurer or reinsurer anticipates the ultimate costs of claims to be and do not represent an exact calculation of liability. Estimating loss reserves is a difficult and complex process involving many variables and subjective judgments. As part of our reserving process, we will review historical data as well as actuarial and statistical projections and consider the impact of various factors such as:

trends in claim frequency and severity;
changes in operations;
emerging economic and social trends;
inflation; and
changes in the regulatory and litigation environments.

This process assumes that past experience, adjusted for the effects of current developments and anticipated trends, is an appropriate basis for predicting future events. There is no precise method, however, for evaluating the impact of any specific factor on the adequacy of reserves, and actual results are likely to differ from original estimates. In addition, unforeseen losses, the type or magnitude of which we cannot predict, may emerge in the future. We will establish or adjust reserves for our insurance subsidiaries in part based upon loss data received from the ceding companies with which we do business, including AmTrust and ACAC. There is a time delay that elapses between the receipt and recording of claims results by the ceding insurance companies or by the managing general agents and the receipt and recording of those results by us. Accordingly, establishment and adjustment of reserves for our insurance subsidiaries is dependent upon timely and accurately estimate reporting from cedants and agents.

To the extent our loss reserves are insufficient to cover actual losses and loss adjustment expenses, we will have to adjust our loss reserves and may incur charges to our earnings, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

For our property and casualty reinsurance underwriting, we depend on the policies, procedures and expertise of ceding companies; these companies may fail to accurately assess and price the risks they underwrite, which may lead us to inaccurately assess and price the risks we assume.

Because we participate in property and casualty reinsurance markets, the success of our underwriting efforts depends, in part, upon the policies, procedures and expertise of the ceding companies making the original underwriting decisions. As is common among reinsurers, we do not separately evaluate each of the individual risks assumed under reinsurance treaties. We face the risk that these ceding companies may fail to accurately assess the risks that they assume initially, which, in turn, may lead us to inaccurately assess the risks we assume. If we fail to establish and receive appropriate premium rates or fail to contractually limit our exposure to such risks, we could face significant losses on these contracts.

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Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business.

Operational risks and losses can result from many sources including fraud, errors by employees, failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper internal authorization, failure to comply with regulatory requirements or information technology failures.

We believe our modeling, underwriting and information technology and application systems are critical to our business and reputation. Moreover, our technology and applications have been an important part of our underwriting process and our ability to compete successfully. Such technology is and will continue to be a very important part of our underwriting process. We have also licensed certain systems and data from third parties. We cannot be certain that we will have access to these, or comparable service providers, or that our technology or applications will continue to operate as intended. In addition, we cannot be certain that we would be able to replace these service providers or consultants without slowing our underwriting response time. A major defect or failure in our internal controls or information technology and application systems could result in management distraction, harm to our reputation, a loss or delay of revenues or increased expense.

The occurrence of severe catastrophic events may have a material adverse effect on our financial results and financial condition.

Although our business strategy generally precludes us from writing significant amounts of catastrophe exposed business in our reinsurance segment, most property reinsurance contains some exposure to catastrophic loss. Our Diversified Reinsurance segment includes only limited exposure to natural and man-made disasters, such as hurricane, typhoon, windstorm, flood, earthquake, acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability. While we carefully manage our aggregate exposure to catastrophes, modeling errors and the incidence and severity of catastrophes, such as hurricanes, windstorms and large-scale terrorist attacks are inherently unpredictable, and our losses from catastrophes could be substantial. In addition, it is possible that we may experience an unusual frequency of smaller losses in a particular period. In either case, the consequences could be substantial volatility in our financial condition or results of operations for any fiscal quarter or year, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations and our ability to write new business. These losses could deplete our shareholders’ equity. Increases in the values and geographic concentrations of insured property and the effects of inflation have resulted in increased severity of industry losses from catastrophic events in recent years and we expect that those factors will increase the severity of catastrophe losses in the future.

We may face substantial exposure to losses from terrorism.

U.S. insurers are required by state and federal law to offer coverage for terrorism in certain commercial lines. In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the Congress enacted legislation designed to ensure, among other things, the availability of insurance coverage for foreign terrorist acts, including the requirement that insurers offer such coverage in certain commercial lines. TRIA requires commercial property and casualty insurance companies to offer coverage for certain acts of terrorism and established a federal assistance program through the end of 2005 to help such insurers cover claims related to future terrorism-related losses. TRIEA extended the federal assistance program through 2007, but it also set a per-event threshold that must be met before the federal program becomes applicable and also increased insurers’ statutory deductibles. TRIPRA currently extends the federal assistance program through 2014. However, the Obama administration has proposed an elimination of the program in its fiscal 2011 budget. It is uncertain at this time whether the program will continue through its scheduled expiration date.

Pursuant to TRIA, as extended, U.S. insurance companies must offer insureds coverage for acts of terrorism that are certified as such by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, in concurrence with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, for an additional premium or decline such coverage. The federal government will reimburse commercial insurers for up to 85% of the losses due to certified acts of terrorism in excess of a deductible which, for 2008, is set at 20% of the insurer’s direct earned commercial lines premiums for the immediately preceding calendar year. The federal reimbursement is triggered only after a per-event threshold, referred to as the program trigger, has been reached. In the case of certified acts of terrorism taking place after March 31, 2006, the program trigger throughout the seven-year duration of the program has been set at $100 million for industry-wide insured losses.

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TRIPRA also expanded the definition of Act of Terrorism by removing the distinction between foreign and domestic acts of terrorism.

The federal terrorism risk assistance provided by TRIA, TRIEA and TRIPRA will expire at the end of 2014. Any renewal may be on substantially less favorable terms.

Pursuant to the quota share agreements with AmTrust and ACAC and the reinsurance agreements that we anticipate that our reinsurance subsidiaries will enter into with others, our subsidiaries will reinsure a portion of each ceding insurer’s losses resulting from terrorism. With respect to those reinsurance agreements that we have entered into to date, either terrorism coverage is specifically excluded or we do not consider exposure to terrorist acts to be significant. Although we expect that Maiden Bermuda will seek to retrocede some or all of this terrorism risk to unaffiliated reinsurers, it may be unable to do so on terms that it considers favorable, or at all.

We may or may not use retrocessional and reinsurance coverage to limit our exposure to risks. Any retrocessional or reinsurance coverage that we obtain may be limited, and credit and other risks associated with our retrocessional and reinsurance arrangements may result in losses which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We will provide reinsurance to our clients and in turn we may or may not retrocede reinsurance we assume to other insurers and reinsurers. If we do not use retrocessional coverage or reinsurance, our exposure to losses will be greater than if we did obtain such coverage. If we do obtain retrocessional or reinsurance coverage, some of the insurers or reinsurers to whom we may retrocede coverage or reinsure with may be domiciled in Bermuda or other non-U.S. locations. We would be subject to credit and other risks that depend upon the financial strength of these reinsurers. Further, we will be subject to credit risk with respect to any retrocessional or reinsurance arrangements because the ceding of risk to reinsurers and retrocessionaires would not relieve us of our liability to the clients or companies we insure or reinsure. Our failure to establish adequate reinsurance or retrocessional arrangements or the failure of any retrocessional arrangements to protect us from overly concentrated risk exposure could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation. We will attempt to mitigate such risks by retaining collateral or trust accounts for premium and claims receivables, but nevertheless we cannot be assured that reinsurance will be fully collectable in the case of all potential claims outcomes.

The effects of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business are uncertain.

As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect our business by either extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued insurance or reinsurance contracts that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our reinsurance contracts may not be known for many years after a contract is issued. A recent example of emerging claims and coverage issues is the growing trend of plaintiffs targeting property and casualty insurers in purported class action litigation relating to claims-handling, insurance sales practices and other practices related to the conduct of business in our industry. The effects of this and other unforeseen emerging claim and coverage issues are extremely hard to predict and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The integration of acquired companies may not be as successful as we anticipate.

Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including operational, strategic, and financial risks such as potential liabilities associated with the acquired business. Difficulties in integrating an acquired company may result in the acquired company performing differently than we currently expect or in our failure to realize anticipated expense-related efficiencies. Our existing businesses could also be negatively impacted by acquisitions.

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Relationship with AmTrust and ACAC

We are dependent on AmTrust and its subsidiaries for a substantial portion of our business.

AmTrust is Maiden’s largest client relationship and we will continue to derive a substantial portion of our business from AmTrust in the near term. We commenced our reinsurance business by providing traditional quota share reinsurance to AmTrust through the Quota Share Agreement with AmTrust’s Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary AII, assuming initially a 40% quota share portion of the net liabilities less recoveries of the policies written by AmTrust. With the ongoing diversification of the Company through the GMAC Acquisition and IIS Acquisition, along with entering into the ACAC Quota Share in recent years, AmTrust now represents a reduced percentage of the overall portfolio.

We are still dependent, however, on AmTrust and its subsidiaries for a substantial portion of our business. Our Quota Share Agreement with AII has been renewed for an additional three years (until June 30, 2013), subject to certain early termination provisions (including if the A.M. Best rating of Maiden Bermuda is reduced below “A-”). The Quota Share Agreement will be extended for additional terms of three years unless either party elects not to renew. There is no assurance that this agreement will not terminate. The termination of the Quota Share Agreement would significantly reduce our revenues and would have a material adverse effect on us.

At the same time, there are risks related to the business of AmTrust and its insurance subsidiaries that may adversely impact our ability to continue doing business with them. In addition, we are not able to control the types or amounts of reinsurance AmTrust purchases from unaffiliated reinsurers, and any changes AmTrust makes to such reinsurance may affect our profitability and ability to write additional business.

Our initial arrangements with AmTrust were negotiated while we were its affiliate. The arrangements could be challenged as not reflecting terms that we would agree to in arm’s-length negotiations with an independent third party; moreover, our business relationship with AmTrust and its subsidiaries may present, and may make us vulnerable to, possible adverse tax consequences, difficult conflicts of interest, and legal claims that we have not acted in the best interest of our shareholders.

We entered into the Quota Share Agreement with AII, which reinsures AmTrust’s insurance company subsidiaries, and a Master Agreement with AmTrust, pursuant to which we and AmTrust agreed that we will cause Maiden Bermuda to enter into the Quota Share Agreement. The asset management agreement with an AmTrust subsidiary, the reinsurance brokerage agreement with an AmTrust subsidiary, the warrants previously issued to our Founding Shareholders (which were exchanged for restricted common shares in September 2010) and the expired provisional employment agreement with our former Chief Executive Officer, Max G. Caviet, were negotiated while we were an affiliate of AmTrust. These circumstances could increase the likelihood that the IRS would claim that the agreements between us and AmTrust were not concluded on an arm’s-length basis and any such assertion, if not disproved by us, could result in adverse tax consequences to us.

Because (i) our Founding Shareholders collectively own or control approximately 59% of the outstanding shares of AmTrust’s common stock, (ii) our Founding Shareholders sponsored our formation, and (iii) our Founding Shareholders’ common shares represent approximately 28.3% of our outstanding common shares; we therefore may be deemed an affiliate of AmTrust. Due to our close business relationship with AmTrust, we may be presented with situations involving conflicts of interest with respect to the agreements and other arrangements we will enter into with AmTrust and its subsidiaries, exposing us to possible claims that we have not acted in the best interest of our shareholders. The arrangements between us and AmTrust were modified somewhat after they were originally entered into and there could be future modifications.

The Chairman of the Board currently holds the positions of President, Chief Executive Officer and director of AmTrust, and our former Chief Executive Officer and director is currently employed by AmTrust as an executive officer. These dual positions may present, and make us vulnerable to, difficult conflicts of interest and related legal challenges.

Barry D. Zyskind, our non-executive Chairman of the Board, is the President, Chief Executive Officer and director of AmTrust and, as such, he does not serve our company on a full-time basis. Mr. Zyskind is expected to continue in both of his positions for the foreseeable future. In addition, Max G. Caviet, our former

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Chief Executive Officer and director, is currently employed by AmTrust as an executive officer. Conflicts of interest could arise with respect to business opportunities that could be advantageous to AmTrust or its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and us or our subsidiary, on the other hand. In addition, potential conflicts of interest may arise should the interests of Maiden Holdings and AmTrust diverge. Because AmTrust was our only significant customer until November 2008, remains our largest customer, and is expected to remain our largest customer for at least the next several years, AmTrust could have the ability to significantly influence such situations. However, the Audit Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors, which consists entirely of independent directors, does review and approve all related party transactions.

One of our Founding Shareholders owns the majority of the common stock of ACAC, and AmTrust has an investment in ACAC. This may present, and make us vulnerable to, difficult conflicts of interest and related legal challenges.

In November 2009, we announced an agreement in principal with ACAC regarding a multi-year 25% quota share agreement expected to generate over $200 million in annual revenue. The contract commenced on March 1, 2010 after final regulatory approval and the closing of ACAC’s acquisition of GMACI’s U.S. consumer property and casualty insurance business, as well as a small amount of commercial auto business. ACAC is owned by one of our Founding Shareholders, Michael Karfunkel, and the Michael Karfunkel 2005 Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (the “Trust”), which is controlled by Michael Karfunkel. The Trust currently owns 72.4% of ACAC’s issued and outstanding common stock, Michael Karfunkel currently owns 27.6% of ACAC’s issued and outstanding common stock and AmTrust owns preferred shares convertible into 21.25% of the issued and outstanding common stock of ACAC.

Conflicts of interest could arise with respect to business opportunities that could be advantageous to ACAC or its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and us or our subsidiary, on the other hand. In addition, potential conflicts of interest may arise should the interests of Maiden Holdings and ACAC diverge. Because it is anticipated that ACAC will be a significant customer for at least the next several years, one of our Founding Shareholders could have the ability to significantly influence such situations. However, the Audit Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors, which consists entirely of independent directors, does review and approve all related party transactions.

Our funds will be loaned to AII to be placed in trusts for the benefit of AmTrust’s insurance companies or will be placed in trusts for the benefit of other ceding companies.

Maiden Bermuda has agreed to collateralize its obligations under the Quota Share Agreement with AII by one or more of the following methods at the election of Maiden Bermuda:

by lending funds (which may include cash or investments) on an unsecured basis to AII pursuant to a loan agreement between Maiden Bermuda and AII with such funds being deposited by AII into the trust accounts established or to be established by AII for the sole benefit of AmTrust’s U.S. insurance subsidiaries pursuant to the reinsurance agreements between AII and those AmTrust subsidiaries;
by transferring to AII assets for deposit into those trust accounts;
by delivering letters of credit to the applicable U.S. AmTrust insurance subsidiaries on behalf of AII; or
by requesting that AII cause such AmTrust insurance subsidiary to withhold premiums in lieu of remitting such premiums to AII.

As a result of our use of Regulation 114 trusts accounts or letters of credit and our election to lend funds to AII, a substantial portion of our assets will not be available to us for other uses, which could reduce our financial flexibility.

If collateral is required to be provided to any other AmTrust insurance company subsidiaries under applicable law or regulatory requirements, Maiden Bermuda will provide collateral to the extent required, although Maiden Bermuda does not expect that such collateral will be required unless an AmTrust insurance company subsidiary is domiciled in the United States. Maiden Bermuda currently is satisfying its collateral

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requirements under the Quota Share Agreement by lending funds (which may include cash or investments) on an unsecured basis to AII pursuant to a loan agreement. As of December 31, 2010, $168.0 million was on loan to AII.

Maiden Bermuda is not a party to the reinsurance agreements between AII and AmTrust’s U.S. insurance subsidiaries or the related reinsurance trust agreements and has no rights there under. If one or more of these AmTrust subsidiaries withdraws Maiden Bermuda’s assets from their trust account, draws down on its letter of credit or misapplies withheld funds that are due to Maiden and that subsidiary is or becomes insolvent, we believe it may be more difficult for Maiden Bermuda to recover any such amounts to which we are entitled than it would be if Maiden Bermuda had entered into reinsurance and trust agreements with these AmTrust subsidiaries directly. AII has agreed to immediately return to Maiden Bermuda any collateral provided by Maiden Bermuda that one of those subsidiaries improperly utilizes or retains, and AmTrust has agreed to guarantee AII’s repayment obligation and AII’s payment obligations under its loan agreement with Maiden Bermuda. We are subject to the risk that AII and/or AmTrust may be unable or unwilling to discharge these obligations. In addition, if AII experiences a change in control and Maiden Bermuda chooses not to terminate the Quota Share Agreement, AmTrust’s guarantee obligations will terminate immediately and automatically.

We will not be able to control AmTrust’s or ACAC’s decisions relating to its other reinsurance, and AmTrust and/or ACAC may change its reinsurance in ways that could adversely affect us.

The reinsurance ceded by AmTrust and ACAC is net of any reinsurance that AmTrust and ACAC obtain from unaffiliated reinsurers. For example, Maiden Bermuda will receive 40% of AmTrust’s premiums (net of commissions in the case of AmTrust’s UK subsidiary) net of premiums ceded to unaffiliated reinsurers, and will be liable for 40% of losses and loss adjustment expenses on the ceded business net of any reinsurance recoverable (whether collectible or not) from unaffiliated reinsurers. We are not able to control the types or amounts of reinsurance that AmTrust or ACAC purchases from unaffiliated reinsurers. If AmTrust and/or ACAC chose to purchase additional reinsurance from unaffiliated reinsurers, AmTrust and/or ACAC would reduce the premium revenue ceded to us. The purchase of such additional reinsurance would however, in general inure to our benefit.

Insurance and Reinsurance Markets

The property and casualty insurance and reinsurance industry is cyclical in nature, which may affect our overall financial performance.

Historically, the financial performance of the property and casualty insurance and reinsurance industry has tended to fluctuate in cyclical periods of price competition and excess capacity (known as a soft market) followed by periods of high premium rates and shortages of underwriting capacity (known as a hard market). Although the financial performance of an individual insurance or reinsurance company is dependent on its own specific business characteristics, the profitability of most property and casualty insurance and reinsurance companies tends to follow this cyclical market pattern. Beginning in 2000 and accelerating in 2001, the property and casualty insurance and reinsurance industry experienced a market reflecting increasing premium rates and more conservative risk selection. These trends have slowed beginning in 2004 and, in recent years market conditions have deteriorated at varying rates of speed with no reversals. The market remains in a competitive environment in which underwriting capacity has expanded, risk selection has become less discrete and price competition has increased sharply. This additional underwriting capacity has resulted in increased competition from other insurance and reinsurance companies expanding the types or amounts of business they write, or from companies seeking to maintain or increase market share at the expense of underwriting discipline. During the last several years through 2010, the market has experienced varying levels of catastrophe activity but in general these levels have been below historical averages and there has not been a single or series of catastrophe events that would serve as a catalyst for changes in broad market pricing, discipline or competition. In addition, despite the significant financial turmoil that occurred in 2008, market participant’s capital levels have continued to improve due to positive earnings and improved values of risk assets over that time. As a result, we believe the current market conditions, featuring greater underwriting capacity and less disciplined risk selection and pricing are likely to continue. Recent catastrophe activity in

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the second half of 2010 and early 2011 do not appear to be creating conditions that would change those conditions on a market-wide basis, although the ultimate outcome of these events and their market impact is not known at this time.

Because this cyclicality is due in large part to the actions of our competitors and general economic factors beyond our control, we cannot predict with certainty the timing or duration of changes in the market cycle. These cyclical patterns, the actions of our competitors, and general economic factors could cause our revenues and net income to fluctuate, which may cause the price of our common shares to be volatile.

Negative developments in the workers’ compensation insurance industry could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In 2010, reinsurance of workers’ compensation insurance was 19.6% of net premium written, which continues a trend of decreases in this line of business as a percentage of total net premiums written in recent years, as the Company continues to diversify. Nonetheless, negative developments in the economic, competitive or regulatory conditions affecting the workers’ compensation insurance industry could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. For example, if legislators in our larger markets were to enact legislation to increase the scope or amount of benefits for employees under workers’ compensation insurance policies without related premium increases or loss control measures, or if regulators made other changes to the regulatory system governing workers’ compensation insurance, this could negatively affect the workers’ compensation insurance industry in the affected markets. Currently, reductions in the number of people employed has affected the underlying payrolls which are generally the basis for insurance premiums charged and subsequently paid to reinsurers for the protection we offer.

In New York, our largest state in terms of workers’ compensation premium volume, and in certain other states, insurance regulators set the premium rates. Insurance regulators may set rates below those required to maintain profitability on our worker’s compensation business.

We compete with a large number of companies in the reinsurance industry for underwriting revenues.

The worldwide reinsurance business is highly competitive, as well as cyclical by product and market. These cycles, as well as other factors that influence aggregate supply and demand for property and casualty reinsurance products, are outside of our control. We compete with a large number of other companies in our selected lines of business. There are many reinsurers throughout the world, and new reinsurance companies, based in Bermuda or elsewhere, may be formed at any time. We will compete with major U.S. and non-U.S. reinsurers that offer the lines of reinsurance that we will offer, target the same market as we do and utilize similar business strategies. We compete with various reputable and established reinsurers, such as Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd., Munich Reinsurance America, Inc., Platinum Underwriters Holdings, Ltd., PartnerRe Ltd., Hannover Re Group, QBE Insurance Group, Transatlantic Holdings, Inc., Endurance Specialty Holdings, Ltd., Scor Reinsurance Company, White Mountains Re Group, Odyssey Re Holdings Corp., W.R. Berkley Corp., and Everest Re Group, Ltd.

Since we have a limited operating history, many of our competitors will have greater name and brand recognition than we will have. Many of them also have more (in some cases substantially more) capital and greater marketing and management resources than we expect to have, and may offer a broader range of products and more competitive pricing than we expect to, or will be able to, offer.

Our competitive position will be based on many factors, including our perceived financial strength, ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, geographic scope of business, client relationships, premiums charged, contract terms and conditions, products and services offered (including the ability to design customized programs), knowledge of the types of business to be reinsured, speed of claims payment, reputation, experience and qualifications of employees and local presence. Since we have only been in operation since 2007, we may not be able to compete successfully on many of these bases. If competition limits our ability to write new business at adequate rates, our return on capital may be adversely affected.

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Consolidation in the insurance and reinsurance industry and increased competition on premium rates could lead to lower margins for us and less demand for our products and services.

The insurance and reinsurance industry is undergoing a process of consolidation as industry participants seek to enhance their product and geographic reach, client base, operating efficiency and general market power through merger and acquisition activities. We believe that the larger entities resulting from these mergers and acquisition activities may seek to use the benefits of consolidation, including improved efficiencies and economies of scale, to, among other things, implement price reductions for their products and services to increase their market shares. Consolidation among primary insurance companies may also lead to reduced use of reinsurance as the resulting larger companies may be able to retain more risk and may also have bargaining power in negotiations with reinsurers. If competitive pressures compel us to reduce our prices, our operating margins will decrease.

As the insurance and reinsurance industry consolidates, competition may become more intense and the importance of acquiring and properly servicing each customer will become greater. We could incur greater expenses relating to customer acquisition and retention, which could reduce our operating margins.

When the property-casualty insurance industry has exhibited a greater degree of competition, premium rates have come under downward pressure as a result. Greater competition could result in reduced volumes of reinsurance written and could reduce our profitability.

Clients and Brokers

Our business is dependent upon reinsurance brokers, managing general agents and other producers, including third party administrators and financial institutions, and the failure to develop or maintain these relationships could materially adversely affect our ability to market our products and services.

We market our reinsurance products primarily through brokers and expect that we will derive a significant portion of our business from a limited number of brokers. Our failure to further develop or maintain relationships with brokers from whom we expect to receive our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our reliance on brokers subjects us to their credit risk.

In accordance with industry practice, we anticipate that we will frequently pay amounts owed on claims under our reinsurance contracts to brokers, and these brokers in turn are required to pay and will pay these amounts over to the clients that have purchased reinsurance from us. If a broker fails to make such a payment, in a significant majority of business that we will write, it is highly likely that we will be liable to the client for the deficiency under local laws or contractual obligations, notwithstanding the broker’s obligation to make such payment. Likewise, when the client pays premiums for these policies to brokers for payment over to us, these premiums are considered to have been paid and, in most cases, the client will no longer be liable to us for those amounts, whether or not we actually receive the premiums from the brokers. Consequently, we will assume a degree of credit risk associated with brokers with whom we work with respect to most of our reinsurance business.

Financial Strength and Debt Ratings

Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty have received financial strength ratings of “A-” (Excellent) from A.M. Best and BBB+ (Good) from Standard & Poor’s. Ratings downgrades of either company may adversely affect our competitive position and our ability to meet our financial goals.

Competition in the types of insurance business that we intend to reinsure is based on many factors, including the perceived financial strength of the insurer and ratings assigned by independent rating agencies. Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty have each received a financial strength rating of “A-” (Excellent) with a stable outlook from A.M. Best, which is the fourth highest of sixteen rating levels. These subsidiaries have also received a financial strength rating of BBB+ (Good) with a stable outlook from Standard & Poor’s, which is the sixth highest of twenty-one rating levels.

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Ratings from these agencies are an opinion of our financial strength and ability to meet ongoing obligations to our future policyholders, and it is not an evaluation directed to our investors in our common shares or trust preferred securities, nor is it a recommendation to buy, sell or hold our common shares or trust preferred securities. Each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.

The ratings of Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty are subject to periodic review by, and may be revised downward or revoked at any time at the sole discretion of A.M. Best and/or Standard & Poor’s. If A.M. Best were to downgrade Maiden Bermuda’s rating below “A-,” AII and other clients would have the right to terminate their respective reinsurance agreements. More generally, if A.M. Best or Standard & Poor’s were to downgrade Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US or Maiden Specialty, our competitive position would suffer, and our ability to market our products, to obtain customers and to compete in the reinsurance industry would be adversely affected. A subsequent downgrade, therefore, could result in a substantial loss of business because AmTrust and our other insurance and reinsurance company clients may move to other reinsurers with higher claims paying and financial strength ratings.

Liquidity, Capital Resources and Investments

A significant amount of our invested assets are subject to changes in interest rates and market volatility. If we were unable to realize our investment objectives, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Investment income is an important component of our net income. We plan to invest approximately 90-95% of our investments in high grade marketable fixed income securities, cash and cash equivalents, and up to approximately 5-10% in other securities which may include high-yield securities and equity securities. As of December 31, 2010, the fixed income securities of $1.9 billion in our investment portfolio represented 90.7% of our total cash and invested assets, of which $5.8 million or 0.3% were other investments. As a result of market conditions prevailing at a particular time, the allocation of our portfolio to various asset types may vary from these targets at times. The fair market value of these assets and the investment income from these assets will fluctuate depending on general economic and market conditions. Because we intend to classify substantially all of our invested assets as available for sale, we expect changes in the market value of our securities will be reflected in shareholders’ equity.

Our board of directors has established our investment policies and our executive management is implementing our investment strategy with the assistance of AII Insurance Management Limited, our investment manager. Although these guidelines stress diversification and capital preservation, our investment results will be subject to a variety of risks, including risks related to changes in the business, financial condition or results of operations of the entities in which we invest, as well as changes in general economic conditions and overall market conditions, interest rate fluctuations and market volatility. General economic conditions and overall market conditions may be adversely affected by U.S. involvement in hostilities with other countries and large-scale acts of terrorism, or the threat of hostilities or terrorist acts.

Our investment portfolio includes a significant amount of interest rate-sensitive instruments, such as bonds, which may be adversely affected by changes in interest rates. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies and domestic and international economic and political conditions and other factors beyond our control. Because of the unpredictable nature of losses that may arise under reinsurance policies, our liquidity needs could be substantial and may increase at any time. Changes in interest rates could have an adverse effect on the value of our investment portfolio and future investment income. For example, changes in interest rates can expose us to prepayment risks on mortgage-backed securities included in our investment portfolio (all of which are currently agency-backed and AAA rated). Increases in interest rates will decrease the value of our investments in fixed-income securities. If increases in interest rates occur during periods when we sell investments to satisfy liquidity needs, we may experience investment losses. If interest rates decline, reinvested funds will earn less than expected.

Certain categories of fixed income securities can experience significant price declines for reasons unrelated to interest rates. For example, from the summer of 2007 through the first half of 2009, segments of the bond market experienced a substantial decline due to spillover effects from the problems affecting the subprime mortgage industry, along with a general reduction in the amount of liquidity in credit markets as a whole. While the difficult conditions in the credit markets that existed have abated somewhat, both the U.S.

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and other sovereign governments have enacted significant monetary measures which have elevated levels of liquidity in the credit market place in order to ensure economic stability and sustain recent limited economic growth. These measures have reduced interest rates to historically low levels and could continue to affect many types of fixed income securities, continuing the current period of higher than average price volatility. In addition, these measures could increase the likelihood of inflation which would likely reduce the value of our fixed income securities and reduce our shareholders equity.

We may invest a portion of our portfolio in below investment-grade securities. Borrowers that issue below investment-grade securities are more sensitive to adverse economic conditions, including a recession. The risk of default by these borrowers and the risk that we may not be able to recover our investment are significantly greater than for other borrowers. We also may invest a portion of our portfolio in equity securities, including hedge funds, which are more speculative and more volatile than debt securities.

If we do not structure our investment portfolio so that it is appropriately matched with our reinsurance liabilities, we may be forced to liquidate investments prior to maturity at a significant loss to cover such liabilities. For this or any of the other reasons discussed above, investment losses could significantly decrease our asset base, which would adversely affect our ability to conduct business. Any significant decline in our investment income would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our growth and our ability to write new business successfully and to establish premium rates and reserves at levels sufficient to cover our losses. In 2007, we used approximately $450.0 million of the $500 million in net proceeds we received from a private offering and the $50 million our Founding Shareholders invested in us to capitalize Maiden Bermuda. We used the $260 million raised in the TRUPS Offering in January 2009 to capitalize Maiden US. We may need to raise additional funds to further capitalize Maiden Bermuda, Maiden US or and Maiden Specialty, or expand our IIS business. We anticipate that any such additional funds would be raised through equity or debt financings. In addition, we may enter into an unsecured revolving credit facility or a term loan facility with one or more syndicates of lenders. We currently have no commitment from any lender with respect to a credit facility or a loan facility. Any equity or debt financing, if available at all, may be on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are able to raise capital through equity financings, the interest of shareholders in our company would be diluted, and the securities we issue may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our common shares. If we cannot obtain adequate capital, our business prospects, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We have debt outstanding that could adversely affect our financial flexibility.

In connection with the TRUPS Offering, Maiden NA issued a subordinated debenture in the principal amount of $260 million, which is the subject of a subordinated guarantee by Maiden Holdings. We may also incur additional indebtedness in the future. The level of debt outstanding could adversely affect our financial flexibility.

Our indebtedness could have adverse consequences, including:

limiting our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders;
increasing our vulnerability to changing economic, regulatory and industry conditions;
limiting our ability to compete and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry;
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds; and
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other purposes.

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Under the terms of our TRUPS Offering, if we prepay the TRUPS before January 20, 2014 we are required to pay a premium to security holders. This premium, along with an amortized discount currently recorded as a reduction of a liability, would affect both results of operations and our book value.

The terms of the TRUPS Offering stipulate that a premium equal to 14% of the value of the TRUPS of $260 million, or $36.4 million, would be payable to the holders of the TRUPS if we were to pay off the securities prior to January 20, 2014. Also, at the time of the TRUPS Offering, we issued 11.7 million common shares to the holders of the TRUPS Offering as an inducement to invest in the TRUPS. The value assigned to these shares, which was $44.9 million at January 20, 2009 and is now $44.8 million at December 31, 2010, is recorded as a reduction of the liability for the TRUPS on our balance sheet and is being amortized into expense over the term of the TRUPS Offering (30 years) using the effective yield method.

If we were to fully pay off these securities prior to January 20, 2014, we would incur $36.4 million in additional expenses along with incurring additional amortization charges to write off the remaining unamortized amounts which are presently $44.8 million. Thus our results of operations and book value would be reduced commensurately.

While the Company’s liquidity is strong, we do not currently have a source or level of funding to prepay these obligations. To the extent that financing is sought to prepay those obligations, the cost associated with such financing would need to be sufficiently lower to justify the near-term financial impact of such an event. While we frequently evaluate the capital markets to gauge the capacity and costs associated with such a financing, it is unclear whether such levels of financing are available or cost-effective enough to proceed and the execution of such a financing would be subject to market conditions and numerous other factors beyond our control.

The availability and cost of security arrangements for reinsurance transactions may materially impact our ability to provide reinsurance from Bermuda to insurers domiciled in the United States.

Maiden Bermuda is not licensed, approved or accredited as a reinsurer anywhere in the United States and, therefore, under the terms of most of its contracts with U.S. ceding companies, it is required to provide collateral to its ceding companies for unpaid ceded liabilities in a form acceptable to state insurance commissioners. Typically, this type of collateral takes the form of letters of credit issued by a bank, the establishment of a trust, or funds withheld. If these facilities are unavailable, not sufficient or if we are unable to arrange for other types of security on commercially acceptable terms, Maiden Bermuda’s ability to provide reinsurance to U.S. based clients may be severely limited.

International Operations

Our offices that operate in jurisdictions outside the U.S. are subject to certain limitations and risks that are unique to foreign operations.

Our international operations are regulated in various jurisdictions with respect to licensing requirements, currency, security deposits, reserves and other matters. International operations may be harmed by political developments in foreign countries, which may be hard to predict in advance. Regulations governing technical reserves and remittance balances in some countries may hinder remittance of profits and repatriation of assets.

As a result of the IIS Acquisition, we are entering into a variety of global insurance and reinsurance markets that we have limited experience with and results may differ from our expectations, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The business associated with the IIS Acquisition and underwritten by Maiden Bermuda is primarily written in Germany, Russia, Latin America, Australia and other global markets that we have limited experience with. We have retained the entire management team and staff of GMAC IIS and GMAC (now Maiden) VS to improve the likelihood that the IIS Acquisition will achieve its expected results. We expect the transaction to be accretive to 2011 earnings, and to generally perform within its overall stated targets. In addition, we have secured an arrangement with the largest primary insurer in the IIS Acquisition portfolio to continue to reinsure business with us for a period of three years. Despite these measures, there can be no guarantee that the IIS Acquisition will achieve the targets anticipated, or that the transaction could result in losses that would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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Foreign currency fluctuations may reduce our net income and our capital levels adversely affecting our financial condition.

We conduct business in a variety of non-U.S. currencies, the principal exposures being the euro, the British pound, the Canadian dollar, the Swedish krona and the Russian ruble. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are exposed to changes in currency exchange rates. Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar, and exchange rate fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar may materially impact our results and financial position. Our principal exposure to foreign currency risk is our obligation to settle claims in foreign currencies. In addition, we maintain and expect to continue to maintain a portion of our investment portfolio in investments denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We may employ various strategies (including hedging) to manage our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. To the extent that these exposures are not fully hedged or the hedges are ineffective, our results or equity may be reduced by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. At December 31, 2010, no such hedges or hedging strategies were in force or had been entered into.

Regulation

Compliance by our insurance subsidiaries with the legal and regulatory requirements to which they are subject is expensive. Any failure to comply could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our insurance subsidiaries are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations applicable to insurance or reinsurance companies, both in the jurisdictions in which they are organized and where they sell their insurance and reinsurance products. The insurance and regulatory environment, in particular for offshore insurance and reinsurance companies, has become subject to increased scrutiny in many jurisdictions, including the United States, various states within the United States and the European Union (“EU”). In the past, there have been Congressional and other initiatives in the United States regarding increased supervision and regulation of the insurance industry. It is not possible to predict the future impact of changes in laws and regulations on our operations. The cost of complying with any new legal requirements affecting our subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, our subsidiaries may not always be able to obtain or maintain necessary licenses, permits, authorizations or accreditations. They also may not be able to fully comply with, or to obtain appropriate exemptions from, the laws and regulations applicable to them. Any failure to comply with applicable law or to obtain appropriate exemptions could result in restrictions on either the ability of the company in question, as well as potentially its affiliates, to do business in one or more of the jurisdictions in which they operate or on brokers on which we rely to produce business for us. In addition, any such failure to comply with applicable laws or to obtain appropriate exemptions could result in the imposition of fines or other sanctions. Any of these sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Insurance statutes and regulations in jurisdictions outside and inside the United States could affect our profitability and restrict our ability to operate.

Maiden Bermuda is licensed as a Bermuda insurance company and is subject to regulation and supervision in Bermuda. The applicable Bermuda statutes and regulations generally are designed to protect insureds and ceding insurance companies, not our shareholders. We do not intend Maiden Bermuda to be registered or licensed as an insurance company in any jurisdiction outside Bermuda or to conduct any insurance or reinsurance activities in the United States or elsewhere outside of Bermuda. Nevertheless, we expect that a large portion of the gross premiums written by Maiden Bermuda will be derived from (1) the Quota Share Agreement with AII, (2) the quota share agreement with ACAC, and (3) from reinsurance contracts entered into with entities mostly domiciled in the United States and Europe. Inquiries into or challenges to the insurance activities of Maiden Bermuda may still be raised by U.S. or European insurance regulators in the future.

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In addition, even if Maiden Bermuda, as a reinsurer, is not directly regulated by applicable laws and regulations governing insurance in the jurisdictions where its ceding companies operate, these laws and regulations, and changes in them, can affect the profitability of the business that is ceded to Maiden Bermuda, and thereby affect our results of operations. The laws and regulations applicable to direct insurers could indirectly affect us in other ways as well, such as collateral requirements in various U.S. states to enable such insurers to receive credit for reinsurance ceded to us.

In the past, there have been Congressional and other proposals in the United States regarding increased supervision and regulation of the insurance industry, including proposals to supervise and regulate reinsurers domiciled outside the United States. Our exposure to potential regulatory initiatives could be heightened by the fact that Maiden Bermuda is intended to be domiciled in, and operate exclusively from, Bermuda. Bermuda is a small jurisdiction and may be disadvantaged when participating in global or cross-border regulatory matters as compared with larger jurisdictions such as the U.S. or the leading European Union countries. This disadvantage could be amplified by the fact that Bermuda, which is currently an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, may consider changes to its relationship with the United Kingdom in the future, including potentially seeking independence.

If Maiden Bermuda were to become subject to any insurance laws and regulations of the United States or any U.S. state, which are generally more restrictive than Bermuda laws and regulations, at any time in the future, it might be required to post deposits or maintain minimum surplus levels and might be prohibited from engaging in lines of business or from writing specified types of policies or contracts. Complying with those laws could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and on our financial condition and results of operations.

In recent years, the state insurance regulatory framework in the U.S. has come under increased federal scrutiny, and some state legislatures have considered or enacted laws that may alter or increase state authority to regulate insurance and reinsurance companies and insurance holding companies. Further, the NAIC and state insurance regulators are re-examining existing laws and regulations, specifically focusing on modifications to holding company regulations, interpretations of existing laws and the development of new laws. Any proposed or future legislation or NAIC initiatives may be more restrictive than current regulatory requirements or may result in higher costs.

In 2008, the BMA introduced new risk-based capital standards for insurance companies as a tool to assist the BMA both in measuring risk and in determining appropriate levels of capitalization. The amended Bermuda insurance statutes and regulations pursuant to the new risk-based supervisory approach required additional filings by insurers to be made to the BMA. The required statutory capital and surplus of our Bermuda-based operating subsidiary increased under the BSCR. While our Bermuda-based operating subsidiary currently has excess capital and surplus under these new requirements, there can be no assurance that such requirement or similar regulations, in their current form or as may be amended in the future, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Europe

Within the EU, the EU Reinsurance Directive of November 2005 (the “Directive”) was adopted and may be fully implemented by all member countries by 2010. The Directive requires member countries to lift barriers to trade within the EU for companies that are domiciled in an EU country. We operate within the EU through a series of foreign branches and continue to evaluate the potential impact of the implementation of the Directive which could vary from country to country. As each country within the EU adopts rules implementing the Directive, we could be materially adversely affected by the adopted rules. We may be required to post additional collateral in EU countries or may need to consider restructuring our business in order to comply with the rules adopted in EU countries implementing the Directive.

In addition to the Directive, the European Union is introducing a new regulatory regime for the regulation of the insurance and reinsurance sector known as “Solvency II.” Solvency II is a principles-based regulatory regime which seeks to promote financial stability, enhance transparency and facilitate harmonization among insurance and reinsurance companies within the European Community (“EC”). Solvency II employs a risk-based approach to setting capital requirements for insurers and reinsurers. One aspect of Solvency II (the

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details of which are currently being developed) concerns the treatment of reinsurance ceded by EC insurers to reinsurers headquartered in a state outside the EC. For example, consideration is being given as to whether reinsurance ceded to a non-EC reinsurer should be treated in the same way as reinsurance ceded to an EC reinsurer, and whether EC decants should require their non-EC reinsurers to provide collateral to cover unearned premium and outstanding claims provisions. The Solvency II directive proposes that EC and non-EC reinsurers shall be treated in the same way provided that the non-EC jurisdiction is found to have a regulatory regime “equivalent” to that of Solvency II. Our reinsurance subsidiaries are headquartered in non-EC countries. If the regulatory regimes of such countries are found not to be equivalent to that of Solvency II and if our reinsurance subsidiaries fall below a certain minimum credit rating, then cedants in the EC may be prevented from recognizing the reinsurance provided to them by our reinsurance subsidiaries for the purpose of meeting their capital requirements or we may be required to provide collateral for our obligations to EC insurers. This could have a material adverse impact on our ability to conduct our business. Solvency II is scheduled to be fully implemented by the end of 2012.

United States

In the United States, licensed reinsurers are highly regulated and must comply with financial supervision standards comparable to those governing primary insurers. For additional discussion of the regulatory requirements to which Maiden Holdings, as a holding company, and its subsidiaries are subject, see Item 1 “Business  — Regulation” in this Form 10-K. Any failure to comply with applicable laws could result in the imposition of significant restrictions on our ability to do business, and could also result in fines and other sanctions, any or all of which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, these statutes and regulations may, in effect, restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to write new business or, as indicated below, distribute funds to Maiden Holdings. In recent years, some U.S. state legislatures have considered or enacted laws that may alter or increase state authority to regulate insurance companies and insurance holding companies. Moreover, the NAIC and state insurance regulators regularly re-examine existing laws and regulations and interpretations of existing laws and develop new laws. The new interpretations or laws may be more restrictive or may result in higher costs to us than current statutory requirements. In addition, the federal government has undertaken initiatives, including Dodd-Frank, in several areas that may impact the reinsurance industry, including tort reform, corporate governance and the taxation of reinsurance companies.

Applicable insurance laws regarding the change of control of insurance companies may limit the acquisition of our shares.

Under Bermuda law, for so long as Maiden Holdings has an insurance subsidiary registered under the Insurance Act, the BMA may at any time, by written notice, object to a person holding 10% or more of its common shares if it appears to the BMA that the person is not or is no longer fit and proper to be such a holder. In such a case, the BMA may require the shareholder to reduce its holding of common shares in Maiden Holdings and direct, among other things, that such shareholder’s voting rights attaching to the common shares shall not be exercisable. A person who does not comply with such a notice or direction from the BMA will be guilty of an offense. This may discourage potential acquisition proposals and may delay, deter or prevent a change of control of our company, including through transactions, and in particular unsolicited transactions, that some or all of our shareholders might consider to be desirable.

In addition to the foregoing, we are subject to U.S. state statutes governing insurance holding companies, which generally require that any person or entity desiring to acquire direct or indirect control of any of our U.S. insurance company subsidiaries obtain prior regulatory approval. “Control” is generally defined as the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the company, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract (except a commercial contract for goods or non-management services) or otherwise. Under the laws of most U.S. states, any beneficial owner of 10% or more of the outstanding voting securities of an insurance company or its holding company is presumed to have acquired control, unless this presumption is rebutted. These laws may also discourage potential acquisition proposals and may delay, deter or prevent a change of control of our company, including through transactions, and in particular unsolicited transactions, that some or all of our shareholders might consider to be desirable.

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Any person having a shareholding of 10% or more of the issued share capital in Maiden Holdings would be considered to have an indirect holding in our U.S. insurance subsidiaries at or over the 10% limit. Any change that resulted in the indirect acquisition or disposal of a shareholding of greater than or equal to 10% in the share capital of Maiden Holdings may require approval of the relevant U.S. state insurance regulators prior to the transaction.

Changes in accounting principles and financial reporting requirements could result in material changes to our reported results and financial condition.

U.S. GAAP and related financial reporting requirements are complex, continually evolving and may be subject to varied interpretation by the relevant authoritative bodies. Such varied interpretations could result from differing views related to specific facts and circumstances. Changes in U.S. GAAP and financial reporting requirements, or in the interpretation of U.S. GAAP or those requirements, could result in material changes to our reported results and financial condition. Moreover, the SEC is currently evaluating International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) to determine whether IFRS should be incorporated into the financial reporting system for U.S. issuers. Certain of these standards could result in material changes to our reported results of operation.

Employee Issues

We are dependent on our key executives. We may not be able to attract and retain key employees or successfully integrate our new management team to fully implement our newly formulated business strategy.

Our success depends largely on our senior management, which includes, among others, Art Raschbaum, our President and Chief Executive Officer, John Marshaleck, our Chief Financial Officer, Karen Schmitt, our President of Maiden US and Maiden Specialty, Patrick J. Haveron, our Executive Vice President, and Ronald M. Judd, our President of Maiden Global. We have entered into employment agreements with Messrs. Raschbaum, Marshaleck, Schmitt and Judd, as well as with additional former key employees of GMAC RE and GMAC IIS. These employees were instrumental in developing the book of business with the former GMAC RE and GMAC IIS and have been managing the retention of that business as it has transferred to Maiden US, Maiden Specialty or Maiden Bermuda. Our inability to attract and retain additional personnel or the loss of the services of any of our senior executives or key employees could delay or prevent us from fully implementing our business strategy and could significantly and negatively affect our business.

Our business in Bermuda could be adversely affected by Bermuda employment restrictions.

Currently, we employ eleven non-Bermudians in our Bermuda office including our Chief Executive Officer, our Chief Financial Officer, our Chief Underwriting Officer and our Chief Actuarial Officer. We may hire additional non-Bermudians as our business grows. Under Bermuda law, non-Bermudians (other than spouses of Bermudians, holders of permanent residents’ certificates and holders of working residents’ certificates) may not engage in any gainful occupation in Bermuda without a valid government work permit. A work permit may be granted or renewed upon showing that, after proper public advertisement, no Bermudian, spouse of a Bermudian, or holder of a permanent resident’s or working resident’s certificate who meets the minimum standards reasonably required by the employer has applied for the job. The Bermuda government’s policy places a six year term limit on individuals with work permits, subject to certain exemptions for key employees. A work permit is issued with an expiry date (up to five years) and no assurances can be given that any work permit will be issued or, if issued, renewed upon the expiration of the relevant term. We may not be able to use the services of one or more of our non-Bermudian employees if we are not able to obtain work permits for them, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Corporate Governance

Our holding company structure and certain regulatory and other constraints affect our ability to pay dividends and make other payments.

Maiden Holdings is a holding company. As a result, we do not have, and will not have, any significant operations or assets other than our ownership of the shares of our subsidiaries.

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We expect that dividends and other permitted distributions from Maiden Bermuda, Maiden Global (and its subsidiaries), Maiden LF and Maiden NA will be our sole source of funds to pay dividends to shareholders and meet ongoing cash requirements, including debt service payments, if any, and other expenses. Bermuda law and regulations, including, but not limited to, Bermuda insurance regulations, will restrict the declaration and payment of dividends and the making of distributions by Maiden Bermuda, unless specific regulatory requirements are met. In addition, Maiden Bermuda might enter into contractual arrangements in the future that could impose restrictions on any such payments. If we cannot receive dividends or other permitted distributions from Maiden Bermuda as a result of such restrictions, we will be unable to pay dividends as currently contemplated by our board of directors. Maiden Bermuda is currently able to pay us dividends of approximately $84.9 million. The inability of Maiden Bermuda to pay dividends in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our cash requirements at the holding company level could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to Bermuda regulatory constraints that will affect our ability to pay dividends on our shares and make other payments. Under the Companies Act, we may declare or pay a dividend out of distributable reserves only if we have reasonable grounds for believing that we are, or would after the payment be, able to pay our liabilities as they become due and if the realizable value of our assets would thereby not be less than the aggregate of our liabilities and issued share capital and share premium accounts.

The ability of Maiden US and Maiden Specialty to pay dividends is regulated, and under certain circumstances, restricted, pursuant to applicable law. If Maiden US and Maiden Specialty cannot pay dividends to Maiden NA, Maiden NA may not, in turn, be able to pay dividends to Maiden Holdings, which may not, in turn, be able to pay dividends to shareholders. As of December 31, 2010, Maiden US could pay dividends to Maiden NA of approximately $25.9 million and Maiden Specialty could pay dividends to Maiden US of $2.8 million without prior regulatory approval. Any dividends paid by Maiden US and Maiden Specialty would reduce its surplus.

Under The Insurance Act 1978 (Bermuda), amendments thereto and related regulations (the “Insurance Act”), Maiden Insurance is required to prepare Statutory Financial Statements and to file a Statutory Financial Return in Bermuda. The Insurance Act also requires Maiden Insurance to maintain a minimum share capital of $120. To satisfy these requirements, the statutory capital and surplus of Maiden Insurance at December 31, 2010 was approximately $667,277 (2009 – $569,115) and the amount required to be maintained under Bermuda law, the Minimum Solvency Margin, was $158,699 (2009 – $142,967) at December 31, 2010. Maiden Insurance was also required to maintain a minimum liquidity ratio. All requirements were met by Maiden Insurance throughout the period. In addition, Maiden Insurance is subject to statutory and regulatory restrictions under the Insurance Act that limit the maximum amount of annual dividends or distributions to be paid by Maiden Insurance to Maiden Holdings without notification to the Bermuda Monetary Authority of such payment (and in certain cases prior approval of the Bermuda Monetary Authority). As of December 31, 2010, Maiden Insurance is allowed to pay dividends or distributions not exceeding $84,875 without such notification or approval.

Maiden Insurance is registered as a Class 3B reinsurer under the Insurance Act and therefore must maintain capital at a level equal to its enhanced capital requirement (“ECR”) which is established by reference to the Bermuda Solvency Requirement (“BSCR”) model. The BSCR employs a standard mathematical model that correlates the risk underwritten to the capital that is dedicated to the business. The regulatory requirements are designed to have insurers operate at or above a threshold capital level, which exceeds the BSCR. While not specifically referred to in the Insurance Act, the BMA has established a target capital level (“TCL”) for each Class 3B insurer equal to 120% of its ECR. While a Class 3B insurer is not currently required to maintain its statutory capital and surplus at this level, the TCL serves as an early warning tool for the BMA and failure to maintain statutory capital at least equal to the TCL will likely result in increased BMA regulatory oversight. Maiden Insurance is currently completing the 2010 BSCR and believes that it will meet the target level of required capital as of December 31, 2010.

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A few significant shareholders may influence or control the direction of our business. If the ownership of our common shares continues to be highly concentrated, it may limit your ability and the ability of other shareholders to influence significant corporate decisions.

The interests of our Founding Shareholders may not be fully aligned with your interests, and this may lead to a strategy that is not in your best interest. As of March 9, 2011, our Founding Shareholders beneficially control approximately 28.3% of our outstanding common shares. Although they do not act as a group, our Founding Shareholders exercise significant influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, and their concentrated holdings may delay or deter possible changes in control of Maiden Holdings, which may reduce the market price of our common shares.

We currently intend to pay a quarterly cash dividend of $0.07 per common share; however, any determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors.

Our board of directors currently intends to authorize the payment of a cash dividend of $0.07 per common share each quarter. Any determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will be dependent upon our results of operations and cash flows, our financial position and capital requirements, general business conditions, legal, tax, regulatory, rating agency and any contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends and any other factors our board of directors deems relevant, including Bermuda legal and regulatory constraints.

Our revenues and results of operations may fluctuate as a result of factors beyond our control, which may cause the price of our shares to be volatile.

The revenues and results of operations of reinsurance companies historically have been subject to significant fluctuations and uncertainties. Our profitability can be affected significantly by:

fluctuations in interest rates, inflationary pressures and other changes in the investment environment that affect returns on invested assets;
changes in the frequency or severity of claims;
volatile and unpredictable developments, including man-made, weather-related and other natural catastrophes or terrorist attacks;
price competition;
inadequate reserves;
cyclical nature of the property and casualty insurance market;
negative developments in the specialty property and casualty reinsurance sectors in which we operate; and
reduction in the business activities of AmTrust, ACAC or any of our ceding insurers.

If our revenues and results of operations fluctuate as a result of one or more of these factors, the price of our shares may be volatile.

Future sales of shares may adversely affect their price.

Future sales of our common shares by our shareholders or us, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common shares. As of March 9, 2011, 72,107,104 common shares are outstanding. In addition, we have reserved 10,000,000 common shares for issuance under our 2007 Share Incentive Plan. Under this plan, we have granted options exercisable for, in the aggregate, 2,948,376 of our common shares. Sales of substantial amounts of our shares, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the prevailing price of the shares and may make it more difficult for us to sell our equity securities in the future, or for shareholders to sell their shares, at a time and price that they deem appropriate.

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We are subject to additional financial and other reporting and corporate governance requirements that may be difficult for us to satisfy.

We are subject to financial and other reporting and corporate governance requirements, including the requirements of the NASDAQ Global Market and certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the regulations promulgated thereunder, which impose significant compliance obligations upon us. In particular, we are, or will be, required to:

enhance the roles and duties of our board of directors, our board committees and management;
supplement our internal accounting function, including hiring staff with expertise in accounting and financial reporting for a public company, as well as implement appropriate and sufficient accounting and reporting systems, and enhance and formalize closing procedures at the end of our accounting periods;
prepare and distribute periodic public reports in compliance with our obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws;
involve and retain to a greater degree outside counsel and accountants in the activities listed above;
establish or outsource an internal audit function;
enhance our investor relations function; and
establish new control policies, such as those relating to disclosure controls and procedures, segregation of duties and procedures and insider trading.

These obligations require a significant commitment of additional resources. We may not be successful in implementing these requirements, and implementing or maintaining them could adversely affect our business or operating results. In addition, if we fail to implement or maintain the requirements with respect to our internal accounting and audit functions, our ability to report our operating results on a timely and accurate basis would be impaired.

Provisions in our bye-laws may reduce or increase the voting rights of our shares.

In general, and except as provided under our bye-laws and as provided below, the common shareholders have one vote for each common share held by them and are entitled to vote, on a non-cumulative basis, at all meetings of shareholders. However, if, and so long as, the shares of a shareholder are treated as “controlled shares” (as determined pursuant to Sections 957 and 958 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) of any U.S. Person (as that term is defined in the risk factors under the section captioned “Taxation” within this Item on page 54 (that owns shares directly or indirectly through non-U.S. entities) and such controlled shares constitute 9.5% or more of the votes conferred by our issued shares, the voting rights with respect to the controlled shares owned by such U.S. Person will be limited, in the aggregate, to a voting power of less than 9.5%, under a formula specified in our bye-laws. The formula is applied repeatedly until the voting power of all 9.5% U.S. Shareholders has been reduced to less than 9.5%. In addition, our board may limit a shareholder’s voting rights when it deems it appropriate to do so to (i) avoid the existence of any 9.5% U.S. Shareholder; and (ii) avoid certain material adverse tax, legal or regulatory consequences to us, any of our subsidiaries or any direct or indirect shareholder or its affiliates. “Controlled shares” include, among other things, all shares that a U.S. Person is deemed to own directly, indirectly or constructively (within the meaning of section 958 of the Code). The amount of any reduction of votes that occurs by operation of the above limitations will generally be reallocated proportionately among our other shareholders whose shares were not “controlled shares” of the 9.5% U.S. Shareholder so long as such reallocation does not cause any person to become a 9.5% U.S. Shareholder.

Under these provisions, certain shareholders may have their voting rights limited, while other shareholders may have voting rights in excess of one vote per share. Moreover, these provisions could have the effect of reducing the votes of certain shareholders who would not otherwise be subject to the 9.5% limitation by virtue of their direct share ownership.

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We are authorized under our bye-laws to request information from any shareholder for the purpose of determining whether a shareholder’s voting rights are to be reallocated under the bye-laws. If any holder fails to respond to this request or submits incomplete or inaccurate information, we may, in our sole discretion, eliminate the shareholder’s voting rights.

Anti-takeover provisions in our bye-laws could impede an attempt to replace or remove our directors, which could diminish the value of our common shares.

Our bye-laws contain provisions that may entrench directors and make it more difficult for shareholders to replace directors even if the shareholders consider it beneficial to do so. In addition, these provisions could delay or prevent a change of control that a shareholder might consider favorable. For example, these provisions may prevent a shareholder from receiving the benefit from any premium over the market price of our common shares offered by a bidder in a potential takeover. Even in the absence of an attempt to effect a change in management or a takeover attempt, these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common shares if they are viewed as discouraging changes in management and takeover attempts in the future.

Examples of provisions in our bye-laws that could have such an effect include the following:

our board of directors may reduce the total voting power of any shareholder in order to avoid adverse tax, legal or regulatory consequences to us or any direct or indirect holder of our shares or its affiliates; and
our directors may, in their discretion, decline to record the transfer of any common shares on our share register, if they are not satisfied that all required regulatory approvals for such transfer have been obtained or if they determine such transfer may result in a non-de minimis adverse tax, legal or regulatory consequence to us or any direct or indirect holder of shares or its affiliates.

It may be difficult for a third party to acquire us.

Provisions of our organizational documents may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, amalgamation, tender offer or other change of control that holders of our shares may consider favorable. These provisions impose various procedural and other requirements that could make it more difficult for shareholders to effect various corporate actions. These provisions could:

have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us;
discourage bids for our securities at a premium over the market price;
adversely affect the price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of our securities; or
impede the ability of the holders of our securities to change our management.

In addition, AII and ACAC are entitled to terminate the Quota Share Agreement if we undergo a change in control. Because we expect the business we reinsure from AmTrust to constitute a substantial portion of our business, this termination right may deter parties who are interested in acquiring us, may prevent shareholders from receiving a premium over the market price of our common shares and may depress the price of our common shares below levels that might otherwise prevail.

U.S. persons who own our shares may have more difficulty in protecting their interests than U.S. persons who are shareholders of a U.S. corporation.

The Companies Act, which applies to us, differs in certain material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and their shareholders. As a result of these differences, U.S. persons who own our shares may have more difficulty protecting their interests than U.S. persons who own shares of a U.S. corporation. Set forth below is a summary of certain significant provisions of the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda, including modifications adopted pursuant to our bye-laws, applicable to us which differ in certain respects from provisions of Delaware corporate law. Because the following statements are summaries, they do not discuss all aspects of Bermuda law that may be relevant to us and our shareholders.

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Interested Directors.  Bermuda law provides that if a director has a personal interest in a transaction to which the company is also a party and if the director discloses the nature of this personal interest at the first opportunity, either at a meeting of directors or in writing to the directors, then the company will not be able to declare the transaction void solely due to the existence of that personal interest and the director will not be liable to the company for any profit realized from the transaction. In addition, Bermuda law and our bye-laws provide that, after a director has made the declaration of interest referred to above, he is allowed to be counted for purposes of determining whether a quorum is present and to vote on a transaction in which he has an interest, unless disqualified from doing so by the chairman of the relevant board meeting. Under Delaware law such transaction would not be voidable if:

the material facts as to such interested director’s relationship or interests are disclosed or are known to the board of directors and the board in good faith authorizes the transaction by the affirmative vote of a majority of the disinterested directors;
such material facts are disclosed or are known to the shareholders entitled;
to vote on such transaction and the transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the majority of shares entitled to vote thereon; or
the transaction is fair as to the corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified.

Under Delaware law, such interested director could be held liable for a transaction in which such director derived an improper personal benefit.

Mergers and Similar Arrangements.  The amalgamation of a Bermuda company with another company or corporation (other than certain affiliated companies) requires the amalgamation agreement to be approved by the company’s board of directors and by its shareholders. Under our bye-laws, we may, with the approval of a majority of votes cast at a general meeting of our shareholders at which a quorum is present, amalgamate with another Bermuda company or with a body incorporated outside Bermuda. In the case of an amalgamation, a shareholder may apply to a Bermuda court for a proper valuation of such shareholder’s shares if such shareholder is not satisfied that fair value has been paid for such shares. Under Delaware law, with certain exceptions, a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all the assets of a corporation must be approved by the board of directors and a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote thereon. Under Delaware law, a shareholder of a corporation participating in certain major corporate transactions may, under certain circumstances, be entitled to appraisal rights pursuant to which such shareholder may receive cash in the amount of the fair value of the shares held by such shareholder (as determined by a court) in lieu of the consideration such shareholder would otherwise receive in the transaction.

Shareholders’ Suit.  The rights of shareholders under Bermuda law are not as extensive as the rights of shareholders under legislation or judicial precedent in many United States jurisdictions. Class actions and derivative actions are generally not available to shareholders under the laws of Bermuda. However, the Bermuda courts ordinarily would be expected to follow English case law precedent, which would permit a shareholder to commence an action in the name of the company to remedy a wrong done to the company where the act complained of is alleged to be beyond the corporate power of the company, is illegal or would result in the violation of our memorandum of association or bye-laws. Furthermore, consideration would be given by the court to acts that are alleged to constitute a fraud against the minority shareholders or where an act requires the approval of a greater percentage of our shareholders than actually approved it. The winning party in such an action generally would be able to recover a portion of attorneys’ fees incurred in connection with such action. Our bye-laws provide that shareholders waive all claims or rights of action that they might have, individually or in the right of the company, against any director or officer for any act or failure to act in the performance of such director’s or officer’s duties, except with respect to any fraud or dishonesty of such director or officer. Class actions and derivative actions generally are available to shareholders under Delaware law for, among other things, breach of fiduciary duty, corporate waste and actions not taken in accordance with applicable law. In such actions, the court has discretion to permit the winning party to recover attorneys’ fees incurred in connection with such action.

Indemnification of Directors.  We may indemnify our directors or officers in their capacity as directors or officers of any loss arising or liability attaching to them by virtue of any rule of law in respect of any

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negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which a director or officer may be guilty in relation to the company other than in respect of his own fraud or dishonesty. Under Delaware law, a corporation may indemnify a director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in defense of an action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position if such director or officer acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, such director or officer had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers.

We are a Bermuda company and it may be difficult for you to enforce judgments against us or our directors and executive officers.

We are incorporated under the laws of Bermuda and our business is based in Bermuda. In addition, most of our directors and officers reside outside Bermuda and a substantial portion of our assets will be and the assets of these persons are, and will continue to be, located in jurisdictions outside Bermuda. As such, it may be difficult or impossible to effect service of process within the United States upon us or those persons or to recover against us or them on judgments of U.S. courts, including judgments predicated upon civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. Further, no claim may be brought in Bermuda against us or our directors and officers in the first instance for violation of U.S. federal securities laws because these laws have no extraterritorial jurisdiction under Bermuda law and do not have force of law in Bermuda. A Bermuda court may, however, impose civil liability, including the possibility of monetary damages, on us or our directors and officers if the facts alleged in a complaint constitute or give rise to a cause of action under Bermuda law.

We have been previously advised by Conyers Dill & Pearman, our Bermuda counsel, that there is doubt as to whether the courts of Bermuda would enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained in actions against us or our directors and officers, as well as the experts named in this Report, predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or original actions brought in Bermuda against us or these persons predicated solely upon U.S. federal securities laws. Further, we have been advised by Conyers Dill & Pearman that there is no treaty in effect between the United States and Bermuda providing for the enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, and there are grounds upon which Bermuda courts may not enforce judgments of U.S. courts. Some remedies available under the laws of U.S. jurisdictions, including some remedies available under the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be allowed in Bermuda courts as contrary to that jurisdiction’s public policy. Because judgments of U.S. courts are not automatically enforceable in Bermuda, it may be difficult for you to recover against us based upon such judgments.

Our internal control and reporting systems might not be effective in the future, which could increase the risk that we would become subject to restatements of our financial results or to regulatory action or litigation or other developments that could adversely affect our business.

Our ability to produce accurate financial statements and comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations is largely dependent on our maintenance of internal control and reporting systems, as well as on our ability to attract and retain qualified management and accounting and actuarial personnel to further develop our internal accounting function and control policies. If we fail to effectively establish and maintain such reporting and accounting systems or fail to attract and retain personnel who are capable of designing and operating such systems, these failures will increase the likelihood that we may be required to restate our financial results to correct errors or that we will become subject to legal and regulatory infractions, which may entail civil litigation and investigations by regulatory agencies including the SEC. In addition, if our management or our independent registered public accounting firm were to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and our financial flexibility and the value of our stock could be adversely impacted.

Taxation

We may become subject to taxes in Bermuda after 2016, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results and on an investment in our shares.

The Bermuda Minister of Finance, under the Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966, as amended, of Bermuda, has given each of Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda an assurance that if any

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legislation is enacted in Bermuda that would impose tax computed on profits or income, or computed on any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, then the imposition of any such tax will not be applicable to Maiden Holdings, Maiden Bermuda or any of their respective operations or their respective shares, debentures or other obligations (except insofar as such tax applies to persons ordinarily resident in Bermuda or to any taxes payable by them in respect of real property or leasehold interests in Bermuda held by them) until March 28, 2016. Given the limited duration of the Minister of Finance’s expected assurance, we cannot be certain that we will not be subject to any Bermuda tax after March 28, 2016. Since Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda are incorporated in Bermuda, we will be subject to changes of law or regulation in Bermuda that may have an adverse impact on our operations, including imposition of tax liability.

The impact of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s directive to eliminate harmful tax practices is uncertain and could adversely affect our tax status in Bermuda.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the “OECD”) has published reports and launched a global dialogue among member and non-member countries on measures to limit harmful tax competition. These measures are largely directed at counteracting the effects of tax havens and preferential tax regimes in countries around the world. In the OECD’s report dated April 18, 2002 and periodically updated, Bermuda was not listed as an uncooperative tax haven jurisdiction because it had previously committed to eliminate harmful tax practices and to embrace international tax standards for transparency, exchange of information and the elimination of any aspects of the regimes for financial and other services that attract business with no substantial domestic activity. We are not able to predict what changes will arise from the commitment or whether such changes will subject us to additional taxes.

We may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, which would have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and on an investment in our shares.

If either Maiden Holdings or Maiden Bermuda were considered to be engaged in a trade or business in the United States, it could be subject to U.S. federal income and additional branch profits taxes on the portion of its earnings that are effectively connected to such U.S. business or in the case of Maiden Bermuda, if it is entitled to benefits under the United States income tax treaty with Bermuda and if Maiden Bermuda were considered engaged in a trade or business in the United States through a permanent establishment, Maiden Bermuda could be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of its earnings that are attributable to its permanent establishment in the United States, in which case its results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda are Bermuda companies. We intend to manage our business so that each of these companies should operate in such a manner that neither of these companies should be treated as engaged in a U.S. trade or business and, thus, should not be subject to U.S. federal taxation (other than the U.S. federal excise tax on insurance and reinsurance premium income attributable to insuring or reinsuring U.S. risks and U.S. federal withholding tax on certain U.S. source investment income). However, because (i) there is considerable uncertainty as to activities which constitute being engaged in a trade or business within the United States; (ii) a significant portion of Maiden Bermuda’s business is reinsurance of AmTrust’s insurance subsidiaries and ACAC’s insurance subsidiaries; (iii) Maiden Bermuda has entered into a brokerage services agreement with IGI Intermediaries, Inc. (“IGI Inc.”) (an AmTrust subsidiary that provides brokerage services in the United States); (iv) our Chairman of the Board is AmTrust’s President and Chief Executive Officer, and certain of our executive officers or directors and former executive officers are also either executive officers of AmTrust or related to directors of AmTrust, including (a) our former interim Chief Financial Officer for part of 2007 was at the time and is AmTrust’s Chief Financial Officer, (b) our former Chief Executive Officer is currently an executive officer of AmTrust, and (c) one of our directors is related to a significant shareholder of AmTrust; (v) one of our Founding Shareholders, Michael Karfunkel, controls ACAC; (vi) we have an asset management agreement with a subsidiary of AmTrust and may also have additional contractual relationships with AmTrust and its subsidiaries in the future, and (vii) the activities conducted outside the United States related to Maiden Bermuda’s start-up were limited, thus we cannot be certain that the IRS will not contend successfully that we are engaged in a trade or business in the U.S.

Potential Additional Application of the Federal Insurance Excise Tax.  The IRS, in Revenue Ruling 2008-15, has formally announced its position that the U.S. federal insurance excise tax (the “FET”) is

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applicable (at a 1% rate on premiums) to all reinsurance cessions or retrocessions of risks by non-U.S. insurers or reinsurers to non-U.S. reinsurers where the underlying risks are either (i) risks of a U.S. entity or individual located wholly or partly within the United States or (ii) risks of a non-U.S. entity or individual engaged in a trade or business in the United States which are located within the United States (“U.S. Situs Risks”), even if the FET has been paid on prior cessions of the same risks. The legal and jurisdictional basis for, and the method of enforcement of, the IRS’s position is unclear. Maiden Bermuda has not determined if the FET should be applicable with respect to risks ceded to it by, or by it to, a non-U.S. insurance company. If the FET is applicable, it should apply at a 1% rate on premium for all U.S. Situs Risks ceded to Maiden Bermuda by a non-U.S. insurance company, or by Maiden Bermuda to a non-U.S. insurance company, even though the FET also applies at a 1% rate on premium ceded to Maiden Bermuda with respect to such risks.

Holders of 10% or more of our shares may be subject to U.S. income taxation under the controlled foreign corporation rules.

If you are a “10% U.S. Shareholder” of a non-U.S. corporation (defined as a U.S. Person who owns (directly, indirectly through non-U.S. entities or constructively (as defined below)) at least 10% of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote) that is a controlled foreign corporation, which we refer to as a CFC, for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during a taxable year, and you own shares in the CFC directly or indirectly through non-U.S. entities on the last day of the CFC’s taxable year, you must include in your gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes your pro rata share of the CFC’s “subpart F income,” even if the subpart F income is not distributed. “Subpart F income” of a non-U.S. insurance corporation typically includes foreign personal holding company income (such as interest, dividends and other types of passive income), as well as insurance and reinsurance income (including underwriting and investment income). A non-U.S. corporation is considered a CFC if 10% U.S. Shareholders own (directly, indirectly through non-U.S. entities or by attribution by application of the constructive ownership rules of section 958(b) of the Code) (that is, “constructively”) more than 50% of the total combined voting power of all classes of voting stock of that non-U.S. corporation or the total value of all stock of that corporation.

For purposes of taking into account insurance income, a CFC also includes a non-U.S. insurance company in which more than 25% of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock (or more than 25% of the total value of the stock) is owned (directly, indirectly through non-U.S. entities or constructively) by 10% U.S. share holders on any day during the taxable year of such corporation.

For purposes of this discussion, the term “U.S. Person” means: (i) an individual citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a partnership or corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, or under the laws of any State thereof (including the District of Columbia), (iii) an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, (iv) a trust if either (1) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. Persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of such trust or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect to be treated as a U.S. Person for U.S. federal income tax purposes or (v) any other person or entity that is treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if it were one of the foregoing.

Because our Founding Shareholders owned all of the shares of Maiden Holdings prior to July 3, 2007, Maiden Holdings was a CFC during the period of 2007 prior to July 3, 2007. Following the 2007 private offering, Barry Zyskind may be treated as a 10% U.S. Shareholder of Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda as a result of his seat on the board of Maiden Holdings, George Karfunkel and/or Michael Karfunkel may be treated as a 10% U.S. Shareholder of Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda as a result of Yehuda Neuberger’s seat on the board of Maiden Holdings, because of Mr. Neuberger’s significant familial connections to the Karfunkels and, through them, to AmTrust. We believe, subject to the discussion below, that because of provisions in our organizational documents that limit voting power and other factors, no U.S. Person who acquired our shares directly or indirectly through one or more non-U.S. entities should be treated as owning (directly, indirectly through non-U.S. entities or constructively) 10% or more of the total voting power of all classes of Maiden Holdings’ or Maiden Bermuda’s shares. However, the IRS could challenge the effectiveness of the provisions in our organizational documents and a court could sustain such a challenge. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that a U.S. Person (other than the Founding Shareholders) who owns our shares will not be characterized as a 10% U.S. Shareholder.

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U.S. Persons who hold our shares may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation at ordinary income rates on their proportionate share of Maiden Bermuda’s related person insurance income.

If U.S. persons are treated as owning 25% or more of Maiden Bermuda’s shares (by vote or by value) (as is expected to be the case) and the related person insurance income (or RPII) of Maiden Bermuda (determined on a gross basis) were to equal or exceed 20% of Maiden Bermuda’s gross insurance income in any taxable year and direct or indirect insureds (and persons related to those insureds) own directly or indirectly through entities 20% or more of the voting power or value of our shares, then a U.S. Person who owns any shares of Maiden Bermuda (directly or indirectly through non-U.S. entities) on the last day of the taxable year would be required to include in its income for U.S. federal income tax purposes such person’s pro rata share of Maiden Bermuda’s RPII for the entire taxable year, determined as if such RPII were distributed proportionately only to U.S. Persons at that date, regardless of whether such income is distributed. In addition, any RPII that is includible in the income of a U.S. tax-exempt organization generally will be treated as unrelated business taxable income. The amount of RPII earned by Maiden Bermuda (generally, premium and related investment income from the direct or indirect insurance or reinsurance of any direct or indirect U.S. holder of shares or any person related to such holder) will depend on a number of factors, including the identity of persons directly or indirectly insured or reinsured by Maiden Bermuda. As of December 31, 2010, we believe that either (i) the direct or indirect insureds of Maiden Bermuda (and related persons) should not directly or indirectly own 20% or more of either the voting power or value of our shares or (ii) the RPII (determined on a gross basis) of Maiden Bermuda should not equal or exceed 20% of Maiden Bermuda’s gross insurance income for the taxable year ending December 31, 2010 and we do not expect both of these thresholds to be exceeded in the foreseeable future. However, we cannot be certain that this will be the case because some of the factors which determine the extent of RPII may be beyond our control.

U.S. Persons who dispose of our shares may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation at the rates applicable to dividends on a portion of their gains if any.

The RPII rules provide that if a U.S. Person disposes of shares in a non-U.S. insurance corporation in which U.S. Persons own 25% or more of the shares (even if the amount of gross RPII is less than 20% of the corporation’s gross insurance income and the ownership of its shares by direct or indirect insureds and related persons is less than the 20% threshold), any gain from the disposition will generally be treated as a dividend to the extent of the holder’s share of the corporation’s undistributed earnings and profits that were accumulated during the period that the holder owned the shares (whether or not such earnings and profits are attributable to RPII). In addition, such a holder will be required to comply with certain reporting requirements, regardless of the amount of shares owned by the holder. These RPII rules should not apply to dispositions of our shares because Maiden Holdings will not be directly engaged in the insurance business. The RPII provisions, however, have never been interpreted by the courts or the U.S. Treasury Department in final regulations, and regulations interpreting the RPII provisions of the Code exist only in proposed form. It is not certain whether these regulations will be adopted in their proposed form or what changes or clarifications might ultimately be made thereto or whether any such changes, as well as any interpretation or application of the RPII rules by the IRS, the courts, or otherwise, might have retroactive effect. The U.S. Treasury Department has authority to impose, among other things, additional reporting requirements with respect to RPII. Accordingly, the meaning of the RPII provisions and the application thereof to Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda is uncertain.

U.S. Persons who hold our shares will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences if Maiden Holdings is considered to be a passive foreign investment company.

If Maiden Holdings is considered a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, a U.S. Person who owns directly or, in some cases, indirectly (e.g. through a non-U.S. partnership) any of our shares will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including subjecting the investor to a greater tax liability than might otherwise apply and subjecting the investor to a tax on amounts in advance of when such tax would otherwise be imposed, in which case your investment could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if Maiden Holdings were considered a PFIC, upon the death of any U.S. individual owning our shares, such individual’s heirs or estate would not be entitled to a “step-up” in the basis of the shares which might otherwise be available under U.S. federal income tax laws. We believe

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that we are not, and we currently do not expect to become, a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes; however, there can be no assurance that we will not be deemed a PFIC by the IRS. There are currently no regulations regarding the application of the PFIC provisions to an insurance company. New regulations or pronouncements interpreting or clarifying these rules may be forthcoming. We cannot predict what impact, if any, such guidance would have on a shareholder that is subject to U.S. federal income taxation.

The Quota Share Agreements between Maiden Bermuda and AmTrust and ACAC, respectively, may be subject to recharacterization or other adjustment for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

Under section 845 of the Code, the IRS may allocate income, deductions, assets, reserves, credits and any other items related to a reinsurance agreement among certain related parties to the reinsurance agreement, or in circumstances where one party is an agent of the other, recharacterize such items, or make any other adjustment, in order to reflect the proper source, character or amount of the items for each party. In addition, if a reinsurance contract has a significant tax avoidance effect on any party to the contract, the IRS may make adjustments with respect to such party to eliminate the tax avoidance effect. No regulations have been issued under section 845 of the Code. Accordingly, the application of such provisions is uncertain and we cannot predict what impact, if any, such provisions may have on us.

Changes in U.S. federal income tax law could materially adversely affect an investment in our shares.

In the past, legislation has been introduced in the U.S. Congress (but not enacted) intended to eliminate certain perceived tax advantages of companies (including insurance companies) that have legal domiciles outside the United States but have certain U.S. connections. It is possible that legislation could be introduced and enacted by the current Congress or future Congresses that could have an adverse effect on us, or our shareholders. For example, President Obama’s 2011 budget proposal would reduce or eliminate the tax deduction for reinsurance premiums paid by a U.S. insurer or reinsurer to an affiliate in a lower tax jurisdiction, such as Bermuda. Another proposal would treat foreign corporations as U.S. corporations for tax purposes if management and control occur primarily in the United States. Any such change in U.S. tax law could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

Additionally, the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations regarding whether a company is engaged in a trade or business within the United States, or is a PFIC or whether U.S. Persons would be required to include in their gross income the “subpart F income” or the RPII of a CFC are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis. There are currently no regulations regarding the application of the PFIC rules to insurance companies and the regulations regarding RPII are still in proposed form. New regulations or pronouncements interpreting or clarifying such rules may be forthcoming. We cannot be certain if, when or in what form such regulations or pronouncements may be provided and whether such guidance will have a retroactive effect.

We may be subject to United Kingdom taxes, which would have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and on an investment in our shares.

A company which is resident in the UK for UK corporation tax purposes is subject to UK corporation tax in respect of its worldwide income and gains. While Maiden Global is a UK company, neither Maiden Holdings nor Maiden Bermuda is incorporated in the UK. Nevertheless, Maiden Holdings or Maiden Bermuda would be treated as being resident in the UK for UK corporation tax purposes if its central management and control were exercised in the UK. The concept of central management and control is indicative of the highest level of control of a company’s affairs, which is wholly a question of fact. The directors and officers of both Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda intend to manage their affairs so that both companies are resident in Bermuda, and not resident in the UK, for UK tax purposes. However, Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs could challenge our tax residence status.

A company which is not resident in the UK for UK corporation tax purposes can nevertheless be subject to UK corporation tax at the rate of 30% if it carries on a trade in the UK through a permanent establishment in the UK, but the charge to UK corporation tax is limited to profits (including income profits and chargeable gains) attributable directly or indirectly to such permanent establishment.

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The directors and officers of Maiden Bermuda intend to operate the business of Maiden Bermuda in such a manner that it does not carry on a trade in the UK through a permanent establishment in the UK. Nevertheless, Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs might contend successfully that Maiden Bermuda is trading in the UK through a permanent establishment in the UK because there is considerable uncertainty as to the activities which constitute carrying on a trade in the UK through a permanent establishment in the UK.

The UK has no income tax treaty with Bermuda. Companies that are neither resident in the UK nor entitled to the protection afforded by a double tax treaty between the UK and the jurisdiction in which they are resident are liable to income tax in the UK, at the basic rate of 22%, on the profits of a trade carried on in the UK, where that trade is not carried on through a permanent establishment in the UK. The directors and officers of Maiden Bermuda intend to operate the business in such a manner that Maiden Bermuda will not fall within the charge to income tax in the UK (other than by way of deduction or withholding) in this respect.

If either Maiden Holdings or Maiden Bermuda were treated as being resident in the UK for UK corporation tax purposes, or if Maiden Bermuda were treated as carrying on a trade in the UK, whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise, the results of our operations would be materially adversely affected.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

We currently lease office space in Bermuda (our corporate headquarters), the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Australia and Russia for the operation of our business. We also lease a property for employee use in Bermuda. Our leases have remaining terms ranging from 7 months to approximately 10 years in length. We renew and enter into new leases in the ordinary course of business as needed. While we believe that the office space from these leased properties is sufficient for us to conduct our operations for the foreseeable future, we may need to expand into additional facilities to accommodate future growth. For more information on our leasing arrangements, please see Note 12 of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K.

We executed an office space lease in Hamilton, Bermuda commencing September 1, 2009 for Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda. The initial term of this agreement expires on November 1, 2012 with one option of five years. We have an office space lease in Mount Laurel, New Jersey expiring on May 31, 2015, for use by Maiden Re, Maiden US and Maiden Specialty. We have also executed an office space lease in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom commencing on October 1, 2010, for Maiden Global; the initial term of this agreement expires on October 1, 2015, with one option of five years. We also have four other office space leases in the United States, one property lease in Bermuda and one office space lease in Germany and Austria, respectively, with various expiry dates.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

We may become involved in various claims and legal proceedings that arise in the normal course of our business, which are not likely to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

In April 2009, we learned that Bentzion S. Turin, the former Chief Operating Officer, General Counsel and Secretary of Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda, sent a letter to the U.S. Department of Labor claiming that his employment with us was terminated in retaliation for corporate whistle blowing in violation of the whistle blower protection provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Mr. Turin alleged concerns regarding corporate governance with respect to negotiation of the terms of the TRUPS Offering and seeks reinstatement as Chief Operating Officer, General Counsel and Secretary of Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda, back pay and legal fees incurred. We believe that we had ample reason for terminating such employment for good and sufficient legal cause, and we believe that the claim is without merit and are vigorously defending this claim. On December 31, 2009, the U.S. Department of Labor found no reasonable cause for Mr. Turin’s claim and dismissed the complaint in its entirety. Mr. Turin has appealed to an administrative law judge in the U.S. Department of Labor, and our motion to dismiss the appeal has been filed and is pending.

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In June 2008, a derivative action on behalf of AmTrust against Maiden Holdings, Maiden Bermuda and certain officers and directors of AmTrust was filed in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York. This complaint alleged that AmTrust’s transactions with Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda unduly benefit Michael Karfunkel, George Karfunkel and Barry D. Zyskind, who are minority shareholders of Maiden Holdings, at the expense of AmTrust and that AmTrust’s directors breached their fiduciary duty to AmTrust by approving them. The plaintiff further alleged claims for breach of their duty of loyalty to and employment agreements with AmTrust against Messrs. Zyskind, Caviet and Pipoly for accepting positions at Maiden Holdings and/or Maiden Bermuda. The complaint sought damages from the individual defendants and Maiden Holdings and judgment declaring the Maiden Holdings and Maiden Bermuda transactions void. Maiden and the individual defendants moved to dismiss the complaint and the court granted summary judgment in favor of Maiden in September 2010 and dismissed the case.

Item 4. (Removed and Reserved)

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common shares began publicly trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “MHLD” on May 6, 2008. The following table sets out the high and low prices for our common shares for the periods indicated as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market. Such prices reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission, and do not necessarily represent actual transactions.

   
  High   Low
2009:
                 
First quarter   $ 5.10     $ 3.61  
Second quarter   $ 6.64     $ 4.10  
Third quarter   $ 8.10     $ 6.10  
Fourth quarter   $ 8.22     $ 6.63  
2010:
                 
First quarter   $ 7.74     $ 6.46  
Second quarter   $ 7.69     $ 6.36  
Third quarter   $ 7.79     $ 6.14  
Fourth quarter   $ 8.11     $ 7.43  

At March 9, 2011, there were 20 holders of record of our common shares. This figure does not represent the actual number of beneficial owners of our common shares because shares are frequently held in “street name” by securities dealers and others for the benefit of beneficial owners who may vote the shares.

During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we declared regular quarterly dividends totaling $0.265 and $0.245 per common share, respectively. The continued declaration and payment of dividends to holders of common shares is expected but will be at the discretion of our board of directors and subject to specified legal, regulatory, financial and other restrictions.

As a holding company, our principal source of income is dividends or other statutorily permissible payments from our subsidiaries. The ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends is limited by the applicable laws and regulations of the various countries in which we operate, including Bermuda and the United States. See Item 1 Business — Regulatory Matters, Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition, and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Restrictions and Specific Requirements, and Note 15 of the notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K.

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Performance Graph

The following information is not deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and the report shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any prior or subsequent filing by the company under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

The following graph shows the cumulative total return, including reinvestment of dividends, on the common shares compared to such return for Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Price Index (“S&P 500”), and NASDAQ Insurance Index for the period beginning on May 6, 2008, the date of our listing on NASDAQ, and ending on December 31, 2010, assuming $100 was invested on May 6, 2008. The measurement point on the graph represents the cumulative shareholder return as measured by the last reported sale price on such date during the relevant period.

Total Return To Shareholders
(Includes Reinvestment of Dividends)
Comparison of Cumulative Total Return

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following tables set forth our summary historical statement of operations data and summary balance sheet data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008. Statement of operations data and balance sheet data are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. These historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected from any future period. For further discussion of this risk see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K. You should read the following selected financial data in conjunction with the other information contained in this Form 10-K, including Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”.

     
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions, Except per Share
Amounts and Ratios)
Summary Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
                          
Gross premiums written   $ 1,298.1     $ 1,048.7     $ 727.4  
Net premiums written     1,227.8       1,030.4       727.4  
Net earned premium   $ 1,169.8     $ 919.9     $ 420.1  
Net investment income     71.6       62.9       37.2  
Net realized investment gains (losses)     6.6       0.3       (37.5 ) 
Total Revenue   $ 1,248.0     $ 983.1     $ 419.8  
Loss and loss adjustment expenses     755.1       608.6       263.7  
Commissions and other acquisition expenses     336.7       241.4       119.7  
Other operating expenses     42.2       32.1       15.0  
Junior subordinated debt interest expense     36.5       34.4        
Amortization of intangible assets     5.8       6.6       1.2  
Foreign exchange and other losses (gains)     0.5       (2.4 )      1.4  
Income tax expense     1.3       1.3        
Total Expenses   $ 1,178.1     $ 922.0     $ 401.0  
Net income   $ 69.9     $ 61.1     $ 18.8  
Per Share Data:
                          
Earnings per common share(1) :
                          
Basic   $ 0.99     $ 0.88     $ 0.32  
Diluted   $ 0.98     $ 0.87     $ 0.32  
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
                          
Basic     70,799,966       69,646,804       59,344,912  
Diluted     71,372.688       70,060,197       59,344,912  
Dividends declared per share   $ 0.265     $ 0.245     $ 0.21  

     
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
Selected Consolidated Ratios:
                          
Loss and loss expense ratio(2)     64.6 %      66.2 %      62.8 % 
Acquisition cost ratio(3)     28.8 %      26.2 %      28.5 % 
General and administrative expense ratio(4)     3.5 %      3.5 %      3.5 % 
Expense ratio(5)     32.3 %      29.7 %      32.0 % 
Combined ratio(6)     96.9 %      95.9 %      94.8 % 

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  As of December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions, Except per Share Amounts)
Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                          
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 96.2     $ 107.4     $ 131.9  
Restricted cash and cash equivalents     89.8       144.9       409.3  
Investments at fair market value     1,880.3       1,667.2       1,125.2  
Reinsurance balances receivable     226.3       211.3       71.9  
Funds withheld     152.7              
Loan to related party     168.0       168.0       168.0  
Deferred commission and other acquisition costs     203.6       173.0       104.5  
Total assets     2,982.6       2,636.1       2,128.6  
Loss and loss adjustment expense reserves     1,226.8       1,002.7       897.7  
Unearned premiums     657.6       583.5       444.5  
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase, at contract value     76.2       95.4       232.6  
Junior subordinated debt     215.2       215.1        
Total Maiden shareholders’ equity     750.2       676.5       509.8  
Book value per share(7)   $ 10.40     $ 9.62     $ 8.7  

(1) Please refer to Note 13 of the notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share.
(2) Calculated by dividing loss and loss adjustment expenses by net premiums earned.
(3) Calculated by dividing commission and other acquisition expenses by net premiums earned.
(4) Calculated by dividing general and administrative expenses by net premiums earned.
(5) Calculated by combining the acquisition cost ratio and the general and administrative expense ratio.
(6) Calculated by combining the loss ratio, acquisition cost ratio and general and administrative expense ratio.
(7) Basic book value per share is defined as total shareholders’ equity available to common shareholders divided by the number of common shares issued and outstanding as at the end of the period, giving no effect to dilutive securities.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Report. Amounts in tables may not reconcile due to rounding differences. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Report, including information with respect to the Company’s plans and strategy for its business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties. Please see the “Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements” in this Report for more information on factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by any forward-looking statements contained in this discussion and analysis. You should review the “Risk Factors” set forth in this Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained herein. Finally, the Company only commenced operations in 2007.

Since our founding in 2007, we have entered into a series of significant strategic transactions that have transformed the scope and scale of our business while keeping our low volatility, non-catastrophe risk profile intact. These transactions have increased our revenue to in excess of $1 billion while strongly positioning our capital to extend its business platform both in the U.S. and internationally and include:

Entering into a quota share reinsurance agreement with AmTrust Financial Services, Inc. (“AmTrust”) in 2007 (the “AmTrust Quota Share”);
Acquiring the reinsurance operations of GMAC Insurance from GMACI Holdings, LLC in 2008 (the “GMAC Acquisition”);
Completing a private placement of trust preferred securities of approximately $260.1 million in 2009 (the “TRUPS Offering”);
Entering into the a quota share reinsurance agreement with American Capital Acquisition Corporation (“ACAC”) in 2010 (the “ACAC Quota Share”); and
Acquiring the majority of the reinsurance-related infrastructure, assets and liabilities of U.K.-based GMAC International Insurance Services, Ltd. in 2010 (the “IIS Acquisition”).

Until such time as the Company attains sufficient historical experience, year-to-year comparability is likely to be more difficult as compared with other companies considered peers of the Company and with whom it competes on a regular basis.

Overview

We are a Bermuda-based holding company formed in June 2007 primarily focused on serving the needs of regional and specialty insurers in the United States and Europe by providing innovative reinsurance solutions designed to support their capital needs. We specialize in reinsurance solutions that optimize financing by providing coverage within the more predictable and actuarially credible lower layers of coverage and/or reinsuring risks that are believed to be lower hazard, more predictable and generally not susceptible to catastrophe claims. Our tailored solutions include a variety of value added services focused on helping our clients grow and prosper.

We provide reinsurance through our wholly owned subsidiaries, Maiden Reinsurance Company (“Maiden US”) and Maiden Insurance Company Ltd. (“Maiden Bermuda”) and have operations in the United States and Bermuda. On a more limited basis, Maiden Specialty Insurance Company (“Maiden Specialty”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Maiden US, provides primary insurance on a surplus lines basis focusing on non-catastrophe inland marine and property coverages. Maiden Bermuda does not underwrite any primary insurance business.

We currently operate our business through three segments: Diversified Reinsurance, AmTrust Quota Share and beginning in 2010, the ACAC Quota Share. As of December 31, 2010, we had approximately $3.0 billion in total assets, $750.2 million of total shareholders’ equity and $965.4 million in total capital, which includes shareholders’ equity and junior subordinated debt.

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The market conditions in which we operate have historically been cyclical, experiencing cycles of price erosion followed by rate strengthening as a result of catastrophes or other significant losses that affect the overall capacity of the industry to provide coverage. During the period covered by this discussion, the reinsurance market has been characterized by significant competition in most lines of business.

During 2009 and 2010, there were a number of events that impacted the property and casualty industry generally. While natural and man-made catastrophes occur each year affecting reinsurance industry results, 2009 generally featured fewer such events, favorably impacting industry performance. Further, despite the ongoing global economic recession, industry investments in risk assets performed significantly better in 2009 and 2010, increasing capital on both a statutory and generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) basis in the United States at both the individual market participant level and in the aggregate across the reinsurance industry more generally. In 2010, a series of significant natural and man-made catastrophes occurred, including major earthquakes in Chile and New Zealand, damaging windstorms in Europe (Xynthia), a series of severe winter storms in the northeastern United States and the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Consistent with its business model, the Company experienced no losses from the Chilean and New Zealand earthquakes, Deepwater Horizon explosion or European windstorms, while losses from the United States winter storms, if any, are expected to be immaterial.

In addition, the property and casualty industry invests significant portions of its premiums and retained underwriting profits in fixed income maturities, the yields on which continue to perform at historically low levels. Continued existence of these conditions, including the possibility of even lower yields in the near-term will increasingly adversely impact the results of the property and casualty industry generally, placing additional pressure on companies underwriting results at a time that market conditions are not supportive of additional pricing measures which would stabilize underwriting trends. Nonetheless, capital positions across the industry remain sufficiently strong that despite the unfavorable pricing and investment environment, competitive conditions appear unlikely to change in the immediately foreseeable future, although the ultimate impact remains unclear. As market conditions continue to develop and competition further increases, we continue to maintain our adherence to underwriting standards by declining business when pricing, terms and conditions do not meet our underwriting standards.

Recent Developments

GMAC International Insurance Services, Ltd. Reinsurance Acquisition (“IIS Acquisition”)

On November 30, 2010, we acquired the majority of the reinsurance-related infrastructure, assets and liabilities of GMAC International Insurance Services, Ltd. (“IIS”). IIS is based in the United Kingdom and also included the following primary components, the sum of which is referred to as the “IIS Acquisition”:

A renewal rights agreement under which Maiden Bermuda underwrites certain assumed reinsurance business written by GMAC International Insurance Company, Ltd. (“GMAC IICL”), which covers primarily personal auto and credit life coverages offered by primary insurers in association with programs IIS designs and implements for original equipment automobile manufacturers;
A reinsurance agreement (the “IICL Agreement”) under which the Maiden Bermuda reinsures all of the existing contracts written by GMAC IICL pursuant to a loss portfolio transfer; under the purchase agreement, all future contracts will be underwritten by Maiden Bermuda;
Acquisition of GMAC VersichsrungService (“GMAC VS”), an insurance producer based in Germany which supports sales of primary personal auto insurance through participating automobile dealerships and original equipment automobile manufacturers;
Acquisition of GMAC Life Försäkrings (“GMAC LF”), a credit life insurer domiciled in Sweden which writes certain credit life insurance in association through automobile financings offered through participating automobile dealerships and original equipment automobile manufacturers which has been renamed Maiden Life Försäkrings AB (“Maiden LF”).

According to the loss portfolio transfer provisions of the IICL Agreement, the Company assumed the loss reserves of $98.8 million associated with the GMAC IICL business as of November 30, 2010. The Company also assumed unearned premium, net of acquisition costs, of approximately $19.2 million.

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The substantial majority of the premiums and losses underwritten by GMAC IICL are subject to collateral requirements in the form of letters of credit and trust agreements. At the closing of the IIS Acquisition, the Company settled cash balances applicable to the subject reinsurance contracts with GMAC IICL. Actual assets in support of the liabilities assumed under the IICL Agreement will be transferred to the Company when the subject individual agreements are novated to Maiden Bermuda. Please refer to the section entitled “IIS Acquisition — Funds Withheld” in the Liquidity and Capital Resources section of “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Results and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K for further information.

As a result of assumption of these liabilities, at November 30, 2010 the underlying assets in support of these collateral arrangements totaled $141.8 million. The Company now assumes one hundred percent (100%) of all premiums and losses for which GMAC IICL is otherwise entitled to or liable in respect of the reinsurance contracts.

We will pay a fee to GMAC IICL for the right to renew the expiring reinsurance contracts, subject to a minimum payment of $4 million, over a three-year period commencing November 30, 2010.

The aggregate purchase price of GMAC VS and GMAC LF at November 30, 2010 was $22.3 million, which was the tangible book value of each entity. All balances of the IIS Acquisition were settled on an estimated basis and pursuant to the terms of the underlying agreements, will be subject to adjustment to the final actual balances as of November 30, 2010 in the first quarter of 2011.

The Company expects the transaction to be accretive to 2011 earnings, and to generally perform within its overall stated targets.

ACAC Transaction

In November 2009, we announced an agreement in principal with ACAC regarding a multi-year 25% quota share agreement expected to generate over $200 million in annual revenue. The contract commenced on March 1, 2010 after final regulatory approval and the closing of ACAC’s acquisition of GMACI’s U.S. consumer property and casualty insurance business, as well as a small amount of commercial auto business. This business generated over $1.0 billion in net written premium in each of 2008 and 2009. ACAC is owned by one of our Founding Shareholders, Michael Karfunkel, and the Michael Karfunkel 2005 Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (the “Trust”), which is controlled by Michael Karfunkel. The Trust currently owns 72.4% of ACAC’s issued and outstanding common stock, Michael Karfunkel currently owns 27.6% of ACAC’s issued and outstanding common stock and AmTrust owns preferred shares convertible into 21.25% of the issued and outstanding common stock of ACAC. In addition to reinsurance support, we will provide support services focused on helping ACAC to continue its profitable expansion.

GMAC Acquisition

On October 31, 2008, we acquired the reinsurance operations of GMAC Insurance from GMACI Holdings, LLC (“GMACI”), which included the following components, the sum of which are referred to as the “GMAC Acquisition”:

GMAC RE LLC (“GMAC RE”), a reinsurance managing general agent writing business on behalf of Motors Insurance Corporation (“Motors”) and the renewal rights for the business written through GMAC RE (which was subsequently renamed Maiden Re Insurance Services, LLC (“Maiden Re”));
GMAC Direct Insurance Company (which was subsequently renamed Maiden Reinsurance Company); and
Integon Specialty Insurance Company (which was subsequently renamed Maiden Specialty Insurance Company).

In conjunction with the acquisition of GMAC RE, on October 31, 2008, the Company and Motors entered into a Portfolio Transfer and Quota Share Reinsurance Agreement (“Agreement”) under which the Company reinsures (i) all of the existing contracts written by GMAC RE pursuant to a loss portfolio transfer and (ii) contracts written pursuant to a fronting arrangement with Motors. According to the loss portfolio transfer provisions of the Agreement, the Company assumed the loss reserves of $755.6 million associated with the GMAC RE business as of October 31, 2008. The Company also assumed unearned premium of

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approximately $169.9 million. As a result of assumption of these liabilities, the Company initially received cash and investments of approximately $956.3 million from Motors. The Company now assumes one hundred percent (100%) of all premiums and losses for which Motors is otherwise entitled to or liable in respect of the reinsurance contracts.

TRUPS Offering

To support the businesses acquired in the GMAC Acquisition and the North American operations of Maiden NA, on January 20, 2009, we completed the TRUPS Offering of approximately $260.1 million in the form of junior subordinated debentures (the “Debentures”) issued by Maiden Capital Financing Trust, a trust established by Maiden NA, and also issued 11,700,000 common shares to the purchasers. The Debentures mature in 2039 and carry an interest rate of 14%. Approximately 62% of these securities were placed privately with two of our Founding Shareholders (Michael Karfunkel and George Karfunkel), and the remainder with existing institutional investors.

2010 Financial Highlights

2010 Consolidated Results of Operations

Net income available to common shareholders of $69.9 million, or $0.99 basic and $0.98 diluted earnings per share
Operating earnings of $72.7 million, or $1.03 basic and $1.02 diluted operating earnings per share(1)
Gross premiums written of $1.298 billion, a 23.8% increase over 2009
Net premiums earned of $1.170 billion, a 27.2% increase over 2009
Underwriting income of $50.1 million and combined ratio of 96.9%(1)
Net investment income of $71.7 million, a 13.8% increase over 2009

2010 Consolidated Financial Condition

Operating return on equity of 10.2%(1)
Common shareholders’ equity of $750.2 million; book value per common share of $10.40
Total cash and investments of $2.1 billion; fixed maturities and short-term securities comprise 90.7% of total investments, of which 63.0% have a credit rating of AAA and an overall average credit rating of AA
Total assets of $2.98 billion
Reserve for losses and loss expenses of $1.23 billion
Total debt of $215.2 million and a debt to total capitalization ratio of 22.3%

(1) Operating earnings, operating earnings per share and operating return on equity are non-GAAP financial measures. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for additional information and a reconciliation to the nearest GAAP financial measure (net income).

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In presenting the Company’s results, management has included and discussed certain non-GAAP financial measures. Management believes that these non-GAAP measures, which may be defined differently by other companies, better explain the Company’s results of operations in a manner that allows for a more complete understanding of the underlying trends in the Company’s business. However these measures should not be viewed as a substitute for those determined in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP measures are:

Operating Earnings and Operating Earnings per Share:  In addition to presenting net income determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe that showing operating earnings enables investors, analysts, rating agencies and other users of our financial information to more easily analyze our results of operations in a manner similar to how management analyzes our underlying business performance. Operating earnings

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should not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP net income. Operating earnings are an internal performance measure used in the management of our operations and represents operating results excluding, as applicable, realized investment gains or losses, foreign exchange gain or loss, the amortization of intangible assets, and in 2008 and 2010, non-recurring general and administrative expenses related to the GMAC Acquisition and the IIS Acquisition, respectively. We exclude net realized investment gains or losses and foreign exchange gain or loss as we believe that both are heavily influenced in part by market opportunities and other factors. We do not believe the amortization of intangible assets is representative of our ongoing business. The expenses related to the GMAC Acquisition and the IIS Acquisition are non-recurring. We believe all of these amounts are largely independent of our business and underwriting process and including them distorts the analysis of trends in our operations. The following is a reconciliation of operating income to its most closely related GAAP measure, net income.

     
  For the Year Ended December 31,
     2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions)
Net income   $ 69.9     $ 61.1     $ 18.8  
Add (subtract):
                          
Net realized investment (gains) losses     (6.6 )      (0.3 )      37.5  
Foreign exchange and other (gains) losses     0.6       (2.5 )      1.4  
Amortization of intangibles     5.8       6.6       1.3  
Non-recurring general and administrative expenses relating to IIS Acquisition (2010) and GMAC Acquisition (2008)     1.8             1.6  
Non-cash deferred tax expense     1.2       1.3        
Operating earnings   $ 72.7     $ 66.2     $ 60.6  
Operating earnings per common share:
                          
Basic operating earnings per share   $ 1.03     $ 0.95     $ 1.02  
Diluted operating earnings per share   $ 1.02     $ 0.95     $ 1.02  

Operating Return on Equity (“Operating ROE”):  Management uses operating return on average shareholders’ equity as a measure of profitability that focuses on the return to common shareholders. It is calculated using operating earnings available to common shareholders (realized gains or losses on investments, foreign exchange gain and other (gains) losses, amortization of intangibles, and amortization of intangible assets) divided by average common shareholders’ equity. Management has set as a target a long-term average of 15% Operating ROE, which management believes provides an attractive return to shareholders for the risk assumed. Operating ROE for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 is computed as follows:

     
  2010   2009   2008
     ($ in Millions)
Operating earnings   $ 72.7     $ 66.2     $ 60.6  
Opening shareholders’ equity   $ 676.5     $ 509.8     $ 537.3  
Ending shareholders’ equity   $ 750.2     $ 676.5     $ 509.8  
Average shareholders’ equity   $ 713.4     $ 593.1     $ 523.6  
Operating return on equity     10.2 %      11.2 %      11.6 % 

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Book Value per Share:  Management uses growth in book value per share as a prime measure of the value the Company is generating for its common shareholders, as management believes that growth in the Company’s book value per share ultimately translates into growth in the Company’s stock price. Book value per share is calculated using common shareholders’ equity divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Book value per share is impacted by the Company’s net income and external factors such as interest rates, which can drive changes in unrealized gains or losses on its investment portfolio. Book value per share for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 is computed as follows:

     
  2010